Fine Art

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordo: Auchenorrhyncha
Infraorder: Fulgoromorpha
Superfamilia: Fulgoroidea

Familiae total (36):
Extant groups (21): AcanaloniidaeAchilidae – Achilixiidae – CaliscelidaeCixiidae – Delphacidae – DerbidaeDictyopharidaeEurybrachidaeFlatidaeFulgoridae – Gengidae – Hypochthonellidae – Issidae – Kinnaridae – Lophopidae – Meenoplidae – NogodinidaeRicaniidae – Tettigometridae – Tropiduchidae

Fossil groups (15): †Coleoscytidae – †Dorytocidae – †Fulgoridiidae – †Inoderbidae – †Jubisentidae – †Katlasidae – †Lalacidae – †Mimarachnidae – †Neazoniidae – †Perforissidae – †Qiyangiricaniidae – †Surijokocixiidae – †Szeiinnidae – †Weiwoboidae – †Yetkhatidae

Genera Incertae sedis total (9):
Extant groups (6): Agenia – Bodecia – Hiracia – Mijas – Thiscia – Ziartissus
Fossil groups (2): † Heseneuma – † Protoliarus

Fulgoroidea Kirkaldy, 1907

Bartlett, C.R.; Adams, E.R.; Gonzon, A.T. jr. 2011: Planthoppers of Delaware (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea), excluding Delphacidae, with species incidence from adjacent States. ZooKeys, 83: 1–42. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.83.1176
Bourgoin T. 1996-2014. FLOW (Fulgoromorpha Lists on The Web): a world knowledge base dedicated to Fulgoromorpha. [1]
Lin, Q.; Szwedo, J.; Huang, D.; Stroiński, A. 2010: Weiwoboidae fam. nov. of 'Higher' Fulgoroidea (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) from the Eocene Deposits of Yunnan, China. Acta geologica sinica - English edition, 84(4): 751–755. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-6724.2010.00263.x
Swzedo J.; Bourgoin T.; Lefèbvre, F. 2004: An annotated catalogue of Fulgoromorpha, :37-137. In: Fossil Planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) of the world. An annotated catalogue with notes on Hemiptera classification. Swzedo, J., Th. Bourgoin & F. Lefèbvre. J. Swzedo edt., Warsaw 2004, 199 pp + 8 pl.
Szwedo, J.; Wang, B.; Zhang, H. 2011: An extraordinary Early Jurassic planthopper from Hunan (China) representing a new family Qiyangiricaniidae fam. nov. (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoroidea). Acta geologica sinica - English edition, 85(4): 739–748. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-6724.2011.00479.x
Yeh, W.-B.; Yang, C.-T.; Hui, C.-F. 2005: A molecular phylogeny of planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) inferred from mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. Zoological studies, 44: 519–535. PDF


Fulgoroidea - Taxon details in FLOW - Hemiptera data bases

A planthopper is any insect in the infraorder Fulgoromorpha,[1] in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha,[2] a group exceeding 12,500 described species worldwide. The name comes from their remarkable resemblance to leaves and other plants of their environment and that they often "hop" for quick transportation in a similar way to that of grasshoppers. However, planthoppers generally walk very slowly. Distributed worldwide, all members of this group are plant-feeders, though surprisingly few are considered pests. The infraorder contains only a single superfamily, Fulgoroidea. Fulgoroids are most reliably distinguished from the other Auchenorrhyncha by two features; the bifurcate ("Y"-shaped) anal vein in the forewing, and the thickened, three-segmented antennae, with a generally round or egg-shaped second segment (pedicel) that bears a fine filamentous arista.


Planthoppers are laterally flattened and hold their broad wings vertically, in a tent-like fashion, concealing the sides of the body and part of the legs.[3] Nymphs of many fulgoroids produce wax from special glands on the abdominal terga and other parts of the body. These are hydrophobic and help conceal the insects. Adult females of many families also produce wax which may be used to protect eggs.[4]
Planthopper (Pterodictya reticularis) with abdominal filaments of ketoester wax

Fulgoroid nymphs also possess a biological gear mechanism at the base of the hind legs, which keeps the legs in synchrony when the insects jump. The gears, not present in the adults, were known for decades[5] before the recent description of their function.[6]

Planthoppers are often vectors for plant diseases, especially phytoplasmas which live in the phloem of plants and can be transmitted by planthoppers when feeding.[7]

A number of extinct members of Fulgoroidea are known from the fossil record, such as the Lutetian-age Emiliana from the Green River Formation (Eocene) in Colorado.[8]

Both planthopper adults and nymphs feed by sucking sap from plants; in so doing, the nymphs produce copious quantities of honeydew, on which sooty mould often grows.[3] One species considered to be a pest is Haplaxius crudus, which is a vector for lethal yellowing, a palm disease that nearly killed off the Jamaican Tall coconut variety.[9]

As mentioned under Auchenorrhyncha, some authors use the name Archaeorrhyncha as a replacement for the Fulgoromorpha.

The extant families of Fulgoroidea are:[4]

Eurybrachidae (= Eurybrachyidae)
Issidae (sometimes includes Caliscelidae)

Extinct families include:

†Dorytocidae Emeljanov and Shcherbakov 2018, monotypic, Burmese amber, Cenomanian
†Fulgoridiidae Handlirsch 1939 Early-Upper Jurassic, Eurasia
†Jubisentidae Zhang et al. 2019 Burmese amber, Cenomanian
†Katlasidae Luo et al. 2020, monotypic, Burmese amber, Cenomanian
†Lalacidae Hamilton 1990 Crato Formation, Brazil Lushangfen Formation, Yixian Formation, China, Aptian
†Mimarachnidae Shcherbakov 2007 Early Cretaceous- early Late Cretaceous, Eurasia
†Neazoniidae Szwedo 2007 Lebanese amber, Barremian, Charentese amber, France, Cenomanian
†Perforissidae Shcherbakov 2007 Early Cretaceous- early Late Cretaceous, Argentina, Lebanon, Mongolia, Myanmar, Russia, Spain, New Jersey
†Qiyangiricaniidae Szwedo et al. 2011 monotypic, Guanyintan Formation, China, Toarcian
†Weiwoboidae Lin et al. 2010 monotypic, Yunnan, China, Eocene
†Szeiiniidae Zhang et al. 2021 monotypic, Shaanxi, China, Late Triassic
†Yetkhatidae Song et al. 2019 Burmese amber, Cenomanian


Evans, J. W. (1946). "A natural classification of leaf-hoppers (Jassoidea, Homoptera). Part 1. External morphology and systematic position". Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London. 96 (3): 47–60. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.1946.tb00442.x.
Song, N.; Liang, A.-P.; Bu, C.-P. (2012). "A Molecular Phylogeny of Hemiptera Inferred from Mitochondrial Genome Sequences". PLOS ONE. 7 (11): e48778. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...748778S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048778. PMC 3493603. PMID 23144967.
Boggs, Joe (14 June 2016). "Planthoppers". Bug Bytes. Ohio State University Extension. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
Dietrich, C. H. (2009). "Auchenorrhyncha: (Cicadas, Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers)". In Resh, V. H.; Carde, R. T. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Insects (2nd ed.). Academic Press. pp. 56–64. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-374144-8.00015-1. ISBN 978-0-12-374144-8.
Sander, K. (1957). "Bau und Funktion des Sprungapparates von Pyrilla perpusilla Walker (Homoptera – Fulgoridae)". Zoologische Jahrbücher: Abteilung für Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere Abteilung für Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere. 75: 383–388.
Burrows, M.; Sutton, G. (2013). "Interacting Gears Synchronize Propulsive Leg Movements in a Jumping Insect". Science. 341 (6151): 1254–1256. Bibcode:2013Sci...341.1254B. doi:10.1126/science.1240284. hdl:1983/69cf1502-217a-4dca-a0d3-f8b247794e92. PMID 24031019. S2CID 24640726.
Lee, I.-M.; Davis, R. E.; Gundersen-Rindal, D. E. (2000). "Phytoplasma: Phytopathogenic Mollicutes". Annual Review of Microbiology. 54 (1): 221–255. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.54.1.221. PMID 11018129.
Shcherbakov, D. (2006). "The earliest find of Tropiduchidae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha), representing a new tribe, from the Eocene of Green River, USA, with notes on the fossil record of higher Fulgoroidea" (PDF). Russian Entomological Journal. 15 (3): 315–322. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-02.

Brown, S. E.; Been, B. O.; McLaughlin, W. A. (2006). "Detection and variability of the lethal yellowing group (16Sr IV) phytoplasmas in the Cedusa sp. (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Derbidae) in Jamaica". Annals of Applied Biology. 149 (1): 53–62. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2006.00072.x.


Wilson, Stephen W. (2005). "Keys To The Families Of Fulgoromorpha with emphasis on planthoppers of potential economic importance in the southeastern United States (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha)" (PDF). Florida Entomologist. 88 (4): 4. doi:10.1653/0015-4040(2005)88[464:KTTFOF]2.0.CO;2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-06.
Bourgoin T. 1996-2015. FLOW (Fulgoromorpha Lists on The Web): a world knowledge base dedicated to Fulgoromorpha.
Larivière, M.-C.; Fletcher, M.J.; Larochelle, A. 2010: Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue.Fauna of New Zealand, (63)
Swzedo J.; Bourgoin T.; Lefèbvre, F. 2004: An annotated catalogue of Fulgoromorpha, :37–137. In: Fossil Planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) of the world. An annotated catalogue with notes on Hemiptera classification. Swzedo, J., Th. Bourgoin & F. Lefèbvre. J. Swzedo edt., Warsaw 2004, 199 pp + 8 pl.

Insects, Fine Art Prints

Insects Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World