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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordo: Heteroptera
Infraordo: Gerromorpha
Superfamiliae (4): Mesovelioidea - Hebroidea - Hydrometroidea - Gerroidea

Overview of familiae (8)

Gerridae - Hebridae - Hermatobatidae - Hydrometridae - Macroveliidae - Mesoveliidae - Paraphrynoveliidae - Veliidae


Andersen, N.M. 1982: The semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha): phylogeny, adaptations, biogeography, and classification. Entomonograph, (3) ISBN 87-87491-05-2 Reference page.

Additional references

Dias-Silva, K. et al. 2013: Gerromorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of eastern Mato Grosso State, Brazil: checklist, new records, and species distribution modeling. Zootaxa 3736(3): 201–235. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3736.3.1 Reference page.
Csabai, Z., Soós, N., Berchi, G.M., Cianferoni, F., Boda, P. & Móra, A. 2017. Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha) fauna of Greek holiday islands (Rhodes, Crete and Corfu) with first records of three species from Europe and Greece. Zootaxa 4231(1): 51–69. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4231.1.3. Reference page.
Figueiredo Moreira, F.F. et al. 2011: Checklist and distribution of semiaquatic and aquatic Heteroptera (Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha) occurring in Brazil. Zootaxa, 2958: 1–74. Preview
Klementová, B.R., Kment, P. & Svitok, M. 2015. Checklist of water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha) of Slovakia. Zootaxa 4058(2): 227–243. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4058.2.5. Preview (PDF) Full article (PDF) Reference page.
Linnavuori, R.E. 2009: Studies on the Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha, Leptopodomorpha, and Miridae excluding Phylini (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Khuzestan and the adjacent provinces of Iran. Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 49: 1–32. Abstract
Moreira, F.F.F., Rodrigues, H.D.D., Barbosa, J.F., Klementová, B.R. & Svitok, M. 2016. New records of Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from South America. Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7975. DOI: 10.3897/BDJ.4.e7975. Reference page.
Riviaux, S.M.; Figueiredo Moreira, F.F.; Naranjo López, C. 2010: Checklist, distribution, and habitat of the semiaquatic and aquatic bugs from Cuba (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Dipsocoromorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha). Zootaxa, 2562: 1–23. Preview
Shapovalov, M.I., Saprykin, M.A. & Prokin, A.A. 2018. Annotated catalog of the northwest Caucasian Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha (Heteroptera). Zootaxa 4379(1): 113–133. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4379.1.7 Reference page.

Vernacular names
suomi: Puolivesiluteet
magyar: Kétéltűpoloskák
日本語: アメンボ下目

The Gerromorpha comprise an infraorder of insects in the "true bug" order Hemiptera. These "typical" bugs (suborder Heteroptera) are commonly called semiaquatic bugs or shore-inhabiting bugs. The Ochteroidea (infraorder Nepomorpha are also found in shore habitat, while the Gerromorpha are actually most often encountered running around on the water surface, being kept from sinking by surface tension and their water-repellent legs. Well-known members of the Gerromorpha are the namesake Gerridae (water striders).

The eight family families usually recognized are arranged in four superfamilies. The two small or monotypic ones of these are basal lineages; the two larger ones form a more advanced clade. The phylogenetic sequence of superfamilies and families of the Gerromorpha is:[2]

Mesovelioidea – water treaders
Madeoveliidae (sometimes included in Mesoveliidae)
Hebroidea – velvet bugs
Hebridae (Hyrcaninae might arguably be considered a good family as the superfamily is monotypic otherwise.)
Hydrometridae – water measurers
Gerridae – water striders
Veliidae – riffle bugs


G. Thirumalai. "Checklist of Gerromorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of India" (PDF). Zoological Survey of India.[permanent dead link]

ToL (1995)

Further reading

Tree of Life Web Project (ToL) (1995): Gerromorpha. Water striders, water measurers, velvet water bugs, and water treaders. Version of 1995-JAN-01. Retrieved 2008-JUL-28.
Tree of Life Web Project (ToL) (2005): Heteroptera. True bugs. Version of 2005-JAN-01. Retrieved 2008-JUL-28.

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