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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Scarabaeiformia
Superfamilia: Scarabaeoidea

Subfamilia: Cetoniinae
Tribus: Goliathini
Subtribus: Goliathina
Genus: Goliathus
Subgenera: G. (Argyrophegges) – G. (Fornasinius) –

Species (6): G. albosignatus – G. cacicusG. goliatus – G. kolbei – G. orientalis – G. regius

Goliathus (s. str.) species (5): G. albosignatus – G. cacicus – G. goliatus – G. orientalis – G. regius


Goliathus Lamarck, 1801

Lamarck, J.-B. 1801. Systeme des Animaux sans Vertèbres, ou Tableau général des classes, des orders at des genres de ces animaux. Paris: Detreville, viii + 432pp. BHL Reference page.

Additional references

Blackburn, R. 2016. The lectotype of Goliathus drurii Westwood, 1837 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) in the Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, Australia. Zootaxa 4161(1): 141–145. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4161.1.11. Full article (PDF) Reference page.
Maquart, P.O. & Malec, P. 2017. On the distribution and natural history of a rarely encountered species: Goliathus (Fornasinius) klingbeili Zöller, Fiebig, & Schulze, 1995 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae). Zootaxa 4341(3): 441–444. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4341.3.12 Reference page.
Vendl, T. & Šípek, P. 2016. Immature stages of giants: morphology and growth characteristics of Goliathus Lamarck, 1801 larvae indicate a predatory way of life (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae). ZooKeys 619: 25-44. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.619.8145. Reference page.


Schoolmeesters, P. 2017. Scarabs: World Scarabaeidae Database (version Jul 2016). In: Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., Nieukerken E. van, Zarucchi J., Penev L., eds. 2017. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 30th January 2017. Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858. Reference page. [accessed on May 4, 2017]

Vernacular names
English: Goliath beetles
français: Scarabée Goliath
magyar: Góliátbogár
日本語: オオツノハナムグリ属
русский: Жук-голиаф
中文: 大角金龜屬

The Goliath beetles (named after the biblical giant Goliath) are any of the five species in the genus Goliathus. Goliath beetles are among the largest insects on Earth, if measured in terms of size, bulk and weight.[1][2] They are members of subfamily Cetoniinae, within the family Scarabaeidae.[1] Goliath beetles can be found in many of Africa's tropical forests,[1] where they feed primarily on tree sap and fruit.[1][2] Little appears to be known of the larval cycle in the wild, but in captivity, Goliathus beetles have been successfully reared from egg to adult using protein-rich foods such as commercial cat and dog food. Goliath beetles measure from 60–110 millimetres (2.4–4.3 in) for males and 50–80 millimetres (2.0–3.1 in) for females, as adults, and can reach weights of up to 80–100 grams (2.8–3.5 oz) in the larval stage, though the adults are only about half this weight. The females range from a dark chestnut brown to silky white, but the males are normally brown/white/black or black/white.[1]


There are six species of Goliath beetles,[3] with several different subspecies and forms only partially described:

Goliathus albosignatus Boheman, 1857[4]
Goliathus cacicus (Olivier, 1789)[5]
Goliathus goliatus (Linnaeus, 1771)[6]
Goliathus kolbei (Kraatz, 1895)[7]
Goliathus orientalis Moser, 1909[8]
Goliathus regius Klug, 1835

Life cycle
Goliathus goliatus (Goliath beetle)
G. albosignatus

Goliathus larvae are somewhat unusual among cetoniine scarabs in that they have a greater need for high-protein foods than do those of most other genera.[1][2] Pellets of dry or soft dog or cat food (buried in the rearing substrate on a regular schedule) provide a suitable diet for Goliathus larvae in captivity.[2] However, a substrate of somewhat moistened, decayed leaves and wood should still be provided in order to create a suitable medium for larval growth.[2] The young stage larvae (1st instar) will eat some of this material. Even under optimum conditions, the larvae take a number of months to mature fully because of the great size they attain. They are capable of growing up to 250 millimetres (9.8 in) in length and reaching weights in excess of 100 grams (3.5 oz).[2] When maximum size is reached, the larva constructs a rather thin-walled, hardened cell of sandy soil in which it will undergo pupation and metamorphose to the adult state.[2] Once building of this cocoon is completed, the larva transforms to the pupal stage, which is an intermediate phase between the larval and adult stages.[2] During the pupal duration, the insect's tissues are broken down and re-organized into the form of the adult beetle. Once metamorphosis is complete, the insect sheds its pupal skin and undergoes a period of hibernation as an adult beetle until the dry season ends.[2] When the rains begin, the beetle breaks open its cocoon, locates a mate, and the entire life cycle starts over again. The adult beetles feed on materials rich in sugar, especially tree sap and fruit.[1] Under captive conditions, adults can sometimes live for about a year after emerging from their pupal cells.[2] Longevity in the wild is likely to be shorter on average due to factors such as predators and weather. The adult phase concentrates solely on reproduction, and once this function is performed, the time of the adult beetle is limited, as is true for the vast majority of other insect species.
Collection of Goliath beetles

The bulky bodies of Goliath beetles are composed of a thick chitinous exoskeleton, which protects their organs and hindwings. Like most beetles, they possess reinforced forewings (called elytra) that act as protective covers for their hindwings and abdomen. Only the hindwings (which are large and membranous) are actually used for flying. When not in use, they are kept completely folded beneath the elytra. Each of the beetle's legs ends in a pair of sharp claws, which provide a strong grip useful for climbing on tree trunks and branches. Males have a Y-shaped horn on the head, which is used as a pry bar in battles with other males over feeding sites or mates. Females lack horns and instead have a wedge-shaped head that assists in burrowing when they lay eggs. In addition to their massive size, Goliath beetles are strikingly patterned; prominent markings common to all of the Goliathus species are the sharply contrasting black vertical stripes on the pronotum (thoracic shield), while the various species may be most reliably distinguished based on their distinctive mix of elytral colors and patterns.[1]
See also

Insect fighting
List of largest insects


Goliathus - The African Goliath Beetles
Karl Meyer Goliathus Breeding Manual
Catalogue of Life
Beetles Space - Goliathus albosignatus
"Goliathus (Goliathus) cacicus (Olivier, 1789) | COL".
Beetles Space - Goliathus goliathus
"Goliathus (Argyrophegges) kolbei (Kraatz, 1895) | COL".

Beetles Space - Goliathus orientalis

Lachaume, Gilbert (1983). "Goliathini 1". The Beetles of the World (volume 3 ed.). Venette: Sciences Nat.

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