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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Antliophora
Ordo: Diptera
Subordo: Brachycera
Infraordo: Asilomorpha
Superfamilia: Empidoidea

Familia: Hybotidae
Subfamiliae (3): Hybotinae - Ocydromiinae - Stuckenbergomyiinae – Tachydromiinae

Overview of genera (74)

Abocciputa – Acarterus – Afrohybos – Allanthalia – Allodromia – Anthalia – Apterodromia – Ariasella – Atodrapetis – Austrodrapetis – Austrodromia – Austropeza – Baeodromia – Bicellaria – Cerathybos – Chaetodromia – Charadrodromia – Chersodromia – Chillcottomyia – Chvalaea – Crossopalpus – Drapetis – Dusmetina – Dysaletria – Elaphropeza – Euhybus – Euthyneura – Hoplocyrtoma – Hoplopeza – Hybos – Isodrapetis – Lactistomyia – Lamachella – Leptocyrtoma – Leptodromia – Leptodromiella – Leptopeza – Leptopezella – Megagrapha – Micrempis – Nanodromia – Neohybos – Neotrichina – Ngaheremyia – Ocydromia – Oedalea – Oropezella – Parahybos – Pieltainia – Platypalpus – Pontodromia – Pseudoscelolabes – Scelolabes – Sinodrapetis – Smithybos – Stenoproctus – Stilpon – Stuckenbergomyia – Stylocydromia – Symballophthalmus – SyndyasSyneches – Tachydromia – Tachyempis – Tachypeza – Trichina – Trichinomyia – Xiphidicera – †Archaeodrapetiops – †Eternia – †Mesoplatypalpus – †Pseudoacarterus – †Tremembella

[sources: Sinclair & Kirk-Spriggs (2010), Systema Dipterorum Version 1.0. Last updated: 10 August 2010]

Hybotidae Macquart, 1827


Template:Macquart, 1827

Grootaert, P. & Shamshev, I. 2013. The flies of the family Hybotidae (Diptera, Empidoidea) collected during the Boyekoli Ebale Congo 2010 Expedition in Democratic Republic of Congo. Zootaxa 3603(1): 1–61. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3603.1.1 Reference page.
Kanavalová, L., Grootaert, P., Kubík, S. & Barták, M. 2021. Four new West Palaearctic species and new distributional records of Hybotidae (Diptera). Zooeys 1019: 141–162. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1019.61496 Open access Reference page.
Raffone, G., 2012: Two new species of Hybotidae from Bolivia with keys to the world species of Megagrapha (Diptera). Bollettino dela Societa Entomologica Italiana 144(1): 28–30. Full article: [1].
Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Revision of the southern African genus Stuckenbergomyia Smith, 1971 (Diptera, Empidoidea) and proposal of a new subfamily. African Invertebrates, 60: 133–145. DOI: 10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.35556 Reference page.
Sinclair, B.J. & Cumming, J.M., 2013: Hybotidae of the Galapagos Islands (Diptera: Empidoidea: Tachydromiinae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 156 (2-3): 127–140.
Sinclair, B.J.; Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. 2010: Alavesia Waters and Arillo–a Cretaceous-era genus discovered extant on the Brandberg Massif, Namibia (Diptera: Atelestidae). Systematic entomology, 35(2): 268–276. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2009.00506.x PDF
Yang, D., Zhang, K.-Y., Yao, G. & Zhang, J.-H. 2007. World catalog of Empididae (Insecta: Diptera). China Agricultural University Press, Beijing. 599 pp. ISBN 978-7-81117-423-6 [not seen]. Reference page.

Additional references

Ale-Rocha, R. & Freitas-Silva, R.A.P. de 2016. FAMILY HYBOTIDAE. In Wolff, M.I., Nihei, S.S. & Carvalho, C.J.B. de (eds.), Catalogue of Diptera of Colombia. Zootaxa 4122(1): 397–403. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4122.1.35. Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: Dance flies

Hybotidae, the typical dance flies, are a family of true flies. They belong to the superfamily Empidoidea and were formerly included in the Empididae as a subfamily.

Some, such as Tachydromia, are predators that run around on the bark of trees in complex patterns, hence the common name. Tachydromia species are only about three millimeters long.

Right wing of the species Hybos grossipes, showing discal medial cell (dm) and first and second medial vein (M1+2)
Hybos caliciformis

Hybotidae share some similarities with the family Dolichopodidae, when looking at rotation of genetalia and wing characteristics. Male terminalia are rotated dextrally between 45° and 90°, excluding segment 7. Hybotidae wings always have a simple R4+5 vein, where the costa either ends near or at M1/M1+2, or near or at R4+5/R5. Furthermore, it can be distinguished from Dolichopodidae by the point of vein Rs, which it at a distance from the humeral crossvein (h) equal to or longer than the length of h.[1]

The Hybotidae clearly form a lineage quite distinct from the Empididae. Among the Empidoidea, they represent a lineage more basal than the main radiation of Empididae and Dolichopodidae, though they are not as ancient as the genera placed in the Atelestidae.[2][3]

By and large, the Hybotidae are monophyletic. Among its subfamilies, the Hybotinae and Tachydromiinae certainly represent clades. The status of the Ocydromiinae as a natural group is less clear, in particular whether the Trichininae should be included as tribe Trichinini or even in the Bicellariini[4] or Oedaleini,[5] or whether they are more distinct and warrant recognition as a separate subfamily.[2]

Based on the most recent phylogenetic studies,[1] the relationship between Hybotidae and other members of Empidoidea is as follows. The placement of Hybotidae is emphasized in bold formatting.





























Systematic list

The subfamilies with their tribes and selected genera are:[3][6][7]

Hybotinae Meigen, 1820
Hybos culiciformis (Hybotinae)

Acarterus Loew, 1858
Afrohybos Smith, 1967
Ceratohybos Bezzi
Chillcottomyia Saigusa, 1986
Euhybus Coquillett, 1895
†Eternia Martins-Neto et al. 1992 Tremembé Formation, Brazil, Chattian
Hybos Meigen, 1803
Lactistomyia Melander, 1902
Lamachella Melander, 1928
Neohybos Ale-Rocha & Carvalho, 2003
Parahybos Kertész, 1899
†Pseudoacarterus Waters 1989 Orapa, Botswana, Turonian
Smithybos Ale-Rocha, 2000
Stenoproctus Loew, 1858
Syndyas Loew, 1857
Syneches Walker, 1852
†Syneproctus Solórzano-Kraemer et al. 2020 Dominican amber, Miocene

Ocydromia glabricula (Ocydromiinae: Ocydromiini)

Tribe Bicellariini Bradley[8], Sinclair & Cumming, 2006
Bicellaria Macquart, 1823
Tribe Ocydromiini
Leptodromiella Tuomikoski, 1936
Leptopeza Macquart, 1834
Ocydromia Meigen, 1820
Oropezella Collin, 1926
Tribe Oedaleini Chvála, 1983
Allanthalia Melander, 1927
Anthalia Zetterstedt, 1838
Euthyneura Macquart, 1836
Oedalea Meigen, 1820
†Ecommocydromia Schlüter 1978 Bezonnais amber, France, Cenomanian
†Pouillonhybos Ngô-Muller et al. 2020, Burmese amber, Myanmar, Cenomanian

Trichinomyia flavipes

Trichininae (often included in Ocydromiinae)

Trichina Meigen, 1830[9]
Trichinomyia Tuomikoski, 1959[10]

Tachydromia arrogans or closely related species (Tachydromiinae: Tachydromiini)

Tribe Symballophthalmini Bradley, Sinclair & Cumming, 2006
Symballophthalmus Becker[11], 1889
Tribe Drapetini Collin, 1961
Allodromia Smith, 1962
Atodrapetis Plant, 1997
Austrodrapetis Smith, 1964
Austrodromia Collin, 1961
Chaetodromia Chillcott & Teskey, 1983
Chersodromia Haliday in Walker, 1851
Crossopalpus Bigot, 1857
Drapetis Meigen, 1822
Dusmetina Gil Collado, 1930
Elaphropeza Macquart, 1827[12][13]
Isodrapetis Collin, 1961
Megagrapha Melander, 1928
Micrempis Melander, 1928
Nanodromia Grootaert, 1994
Ngaheremyia Plant & Didham, 2006
Pontodromia Grootaert, 1994
Sinodrapetis Yang, Gaimari & Grootaert, 2004
Stilpon Loew, 1859
Tribe Tachydromiini
Charadrodromia Melander, 1928
Dysaletria Loew, 1864[14]
Pieltainia Arias, 1919[15]
Platypalpus Macquart, 1827
Tachydromia Meigen, 1803
Tachyempis Melander, 1928
Tachypeza Meigen, 1830

Tachypeza nubila with prey (video, 2m 23s)

†Archaeodrapetiops Martins-Neto et al. 1992 Tremembé Formation, Brazil, Chattian
†Cretoplatypalpus Kovalev 1978 Taimyr amber, Russia, Santonian, Canadian amber, Campanian
†Electrocyrtoma Cockerell 1917 Burmese amber, Myanmar, Cenomanian
†Mesoplatypalpus Grimaldi and Cumming 1999 Canadian amber, Campanian

Incertae sedis

†Trichinites Hennig 1970 Lebanese amber, Barremian


Wahlberg, Emma; Johanson, Kjell Arne (2018). "Molecular phylogenetics reveals novel relationships within Empidoidea (Diptera)". Systematic Entomology. 43 (4): 619–636. doi:10.1111/syen.12297. ISSN 1365-3113.
Moulton, J. K.; Wiegmann, B. M. (2007). "The phylogenetic relationships of flies in the superfamily Empidoidea (Insecta: Diptera)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 43 (3): 701–713. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.02.029. PMID 17468014.
Sinclair, Bradley J.; Cumming, Jeffrey M. (2006). The morphology, higher-level phylogeny and classification of the Empidoidea (Diptera) (PDF). Zootaxa. Vol. 1180. pp. 1–172. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1180.1.1. ISBN 978-1-877407-80-2. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
Jere Kahanpää (July 23, 2008). "Hybotidae". Draft Catalogue of Finnish Flies (Diptera: Brachycera). Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved July 30, 2008.
"Hybotidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved June 21, 2008.
Chvála, Milan (1983). The Empidoidea (Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. II. General Part. The families Hybotidae, Atelestidae and Microphoridae. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica. Vol. 12. pp. 1–279.
Chvála, Milan (1975). The Tachydromiinae (Diptera; Empididae) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica. Vol. 3. Klampenborg: Scandinavian Science Press. pp. 1–336. ISBN 978-87-87491-04-4.
Bradley J. Sinclair and Jeffrey M. Cumming (May 2006). "Morphology, higher-level phylogeny and classification of the Empidoidea". North American Dipterists Society.
Miroslav Barták & Štěpán Kubík (2009). "A new species of the genus Trichina (Diptera: Hybotidae) with a key to European species" (PDF).
"Trichinomyia Tuomikoski, 1959". Natural History Museum.
"Symballophthalmus Becker, 1889". NBN Atlas.
Shamshev, I.V.; Grootaert, P. (2007). "Revision of the genus Elaphropeza Macquart (Diptera: Hybotidae) from the Oriental Region, with a special attention to the fauna of Singapore" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1488: 1–164. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1488.1.1. ISSN 1175-5334. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
Grootaert, Patrick; Van De Velde, Isabella; Shamshev, Igor V. (2015). "Two new coastal species of Elaphropeza Macquart (Diptera: Hybotidae) from Bali, Indonesia". European Journal of Taxonomy. 112 (1): 1–10. doi:10.5852/ejt.2015.112. ISSN 2118-9773. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
Loew, H. (1864). "Ueber die schlesischen Arten der Gattungen Tachypeza Meig. (Tachypeza, Tachista, Dysaletria) und Microphorus Macq. (Trichina und Microphorus)". Zeitschrift für Entomologie. Breslau. 14 (1860): 1–60.
Arias, J. E. (1919). "Description preliminar de un nuevo Empido de Espana". Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. 19: 479–481.

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