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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Myxophaga
Superfamilia: Sphaerioidea

Familia: Hydroscaphidae
Genera (4): Confossa – HydroscaphaScaphydraYara

Hydroscaphidae LeConte, 1874

Short, A.E.Z. et al. 2015: Molecular phylogeny of the Hydroscaphidae (Coleoptera: Myxophaga) with description of a remarkable new lineage from the Guiana Shield. Systematic entomology 40(1): 214-229. DOI: 10.1111/syen.12097 Reference page.

Additional references

Cai, C.; Short, A.E.Z.; Huang, D. 2012: The first skiff beetle (Coleoptera: Myxophaga: Hydroscaphidae) from early Cretaceous Jehol Biota. Journal of paleontology, 86(1): 116–119. DOI: 10.1666/11-050.1 Reference page.
Csiki, E. 1911: Hydroscaphidae, Ptiliidae. Coleopterorum catalogus, 32: 1–61.
Fikáček, M.; Šípková, H. 2009: New Asian Hydroscapha, with comments on male-female association of co-occurring species (Coleoptera, Myxophaga, Hydroscaphidae). Zootaxa, 2286: 31–48. Abstract & excerpt
Reichardt, H. 1973: A critical study of the suborder Myxophaga, with a taxonomic revision of the Brazilian Torridincolidae and Hydroscaphidae (Coleoptera). Arquivos de zoologia, 24(2): 73–162. full text and pdf
Vanin, S.A.; Beutel, R.G.; Arce-Pérez, R. 2005: 6.4. Hydroscaphidae LeConte, 1874. Pp. 49-52 in: Beutel, R.G. & Leschen, R.A.B. (volume eds.) Coleoptera, Beetles. Volume 1: Morphology and systematics (Archostemata, Adephaga, Myxophaga, Polyphaga partim). In: Kristensen, N.P. & Beutel, R.G. (eds.) Handbook of zoology. A natural history of the phyla of the animal kingdom. Volume IV. Arthropoda: Insecta. Part 38. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Catalogue of Palearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 1 ed. I. Lobl, & A. Smetana, Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark, 2003 and 2004
ISBN 87-88757-73-0, p.25


Maddison, David R. 1995. Hydroscaphidae. Version 01 January 1995 (under construction) in The Tree of Life Web Project

Vernacular names
English: Skiff Beetles
한국어: 히드로스카파과
русский: Гидроскафиды

The Hydroscaphidae are a small family of water beetles known commonly as skiff beetles.[1] As of 2010, there are 23 species in the family.[2] Several are recently described.

These beetles are small, most under 2 mm (0.079 in) in length. They are tan to brown in color and the elytra are abbreviated, leaving several tapering tergites of the abdomen exposed. The wings are fringed with long setae. The larvae are fusiform, with a wide thorax and a narrowing abdomen.[2]

Hydroscaphidae live on mats of algae with a thin layer of running water. This may be the accumulated algae lining the very edge of a stream of water.[3] They tolerate a wide range of temperatures; they have been observed in hot springs and in icy snowmelt. The algae are their food source.[2]

The reproductive cycle is not well known. In at least one species, the female lays a single large egg on the algal mat.[2]

Hydroscaphid species have been reported from every continent except Antarctica.


Hydroscapha LeConte, 1874
Scaphydra Reichardt, 1973
Yara Reichardt & Hinton, 1976

Confossa Short, Joly, García & Maddison, 2015


Cai, C.; et al. (2012). "The first skiff beetle (Coleoptera: Myxophaga: Hydroscaphidae) from Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota". Journal of Paleontology. 86 (1): 116–9. doi:10.1666/11-050.1.
Falamarzi, S.; et al. (2010). "Confirmed occurrence of Hydroscapha granulum in Iran, with notes on its biology (Coleoptera: Myxophaga: Hydroscaphidae)" (PDF). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae. 50: 97–106.
Fikáček, M.; Šípková, H. (2009). "New Asian Hydroscapha, with comments on male-female association of co-occurring species (Coleoptera, Myxophaga, Hydroscaphidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2286: 31–48. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2286.1.2.

Beutel, R G.; Haas, A. (1998). "Larval head morphology of Hydroscapha natans (Coleoptera, Myxophaga) with reference to miniaturization and the systematic position of Hydroscaphidae.]". Zoomorphology. 118 (2): 103–116. doi:10.1007/s004350050061.

Further reading

Hall, W. Eugene (2001). "4. Hydroscaphidae LeContre, 1874". In Arnett, Ross H. Jr.; Thomas, Michael C. (eds.). American Beetles, Volume I: Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia. CRC Press. pp. 27–29. ISBN 978-1-4822-7432-5.

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