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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Staphyliniformia
Superfamiliae: Histeroidea - Hydrophiloidea - Staphylinoidea

Overview of familiae

Agyrtidae - Epimetopidae - Georissidae - Helophoridae - Histeridae - Hydraenidae - Hydrochidae - Hydrophilidae - Leiodidae - Ptiliidae - Scydmaenidae - Silphidae - Spercheidae - Sphaeritidae - Staphylinidae - Synteliidae


Beutel, R.G.; Leschen, R.A.B. 2005: Phylogenetic analysis of Staphyliniformia (Coleoptera) based on characters of larvae and adults. Systematic entomology, 30: 510–548. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2005.00293.x
Caterino, M.S.; Hunt, T.; Vogler, A.P. 2005: On the constitution and phylogeny of Staphyliniformia (Insecta: Coleoptera). Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 34: 655–672.
McKenna, D.D. et al. 2014 (Online) 2015 (Print): Phylogeny and evolution of Staphyliniformia and Scarabaeiformia: forest litter as a stepping stone for diversification of nonphytophagous beetles. Systematic entomology 40(1): 35–60. DOI: 10.1111/syen.12093 Reference page.
Newton, A.F., jr.; Thayer, M.K. 1992: Current classification and family-group names in Staphyliniformia (Coleoptera). Fieldiana: zoology (n.s.), 67: 1–92.
Catalogue of Palearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 2 ed. I. Lobl, & A. Smetana, Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark, 2004 ISBN 87-88757-74-9, p.36

Vernacular names
日本語: ハネカクシ下目
한국어: 반날개하목
русский: Стафилиниформные
中文: 隐翅虫下目

Staphyliniformia is a large infraorder of beetles. It contains over 70,000 described species from all regions of the world. Most species occur in moist habitats - various kinds of rotting plant debris, fungi, dung, carrion, many live in fresh water.


Most Staphyliniforms are small to average sized beetles. The diverse group has few clear apomorphies. They have primitively 11-segmented antennae, a constricted neck well behind the eyes. The pronotum has a well defined, large lateral edge. Larval legs are 5-segmented, the 10th abdominal segment is often with more-or-less fine or strong spines or hooks. Urogomphi (paired "horns" at posterior tip of abdomen of larvae and pupae) with basal articulation.[1]
Systematics and evolution

Staphyliniformia belongs to the suborder Polyphaga and is usually given an infraorder or series rank. It contains three superfamilies:

Histeroidea, including the clown beetles.
Hydrophiloidea, including the water scavenger beetles
Staphylinoidea, including antlike stone beetles, carrion beetles, and rove beetles.

Some recent studies also include the superfamily Scarabaeoidea (infraorder Scarabaeiformia), forming together the so-called Hydrophiloid lineage.[2][3] A sister group relationship of Hydrophiloidea and Histeroidea is strongly supported.[4]

The unambiguous fossil record dates back to Triassic, and an early Mesozoic origin of the group is probable.[5]
See also

List of subgroups of the order Coleoptera


M.Hansen. Phylogeny and classification of the staphyliniform beetle families (Coleoptera). Biologiske Skrifter 48, Copenhagen, 1997
M.S.Caterino et al., On the constitution and phylogeny of Staphyliniformia (Insecta: Coleoptera). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Vol.34, 3, 2005
J.Kukalova-Peck, J.F.Lawrence, (1993) Evolution of the hind wings in Coleoptera. Canadian Entomologist, 135, 181–258.
R.G.Beutel, R.A.B.Leschen, Phylogenetic analysis of Staphyliniformia (Coleoptera) based on characters of larvae and adults. Systematic Entomology (2005), 30, 510–548
Grimaldi, D. and Engel, M.S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press

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