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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Hymenopterida
Ordines: Hymenoptera

[list of ordines after Grimaldi & Engel (2005: 147, table 4.1)]

Castro, L.R. and M. Dowton. 2005: The position of the Hymenoptera within the Holometabola as inferred from the mitochondrial genome of Perga condei (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Pergidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 34(3): 469–479.
Grimaldi, D.; Engel, M.S. 2005: Evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA. limited preview on Google books

Hymenopterida is a superorder of insects, comprising Hymenoptera and the orders of Panorpida (Mecoptera, Siphonaptera, Diptera, Trichoptera and Lepidoptera).[1] The superorder is a member of Endopterygota and most closely related to the orders of Neuropterida and Coleopterida (Coleoptera and Strepsiptera).


The cladogram based on a 2008 DNA and protein analysis, shows the internal relationships of the superorder as a clade of Hymenoptera and the orders of Panorpida. [2][3][4][5]


Xyeloidea (Triassic-present) Xyelapusilla.jpg

Tenthredinoidea Endelomyia rosae.jpg

Pamphilioidea Pamphilus icon.png


Cephoidea (stem sawflies) Hartigia linearis.jpg

Siricoidea (horntails or wood wasps) Hymenoptera Vielfalt Horntail.jpg

Xiphydrioidea (wood wasps) Xiphydria prolongata crop.jpg


Orussoidea (parasitic wood wasps) Orussus coronatus.jpg

"wasp waist"

Apocrita (ants, bees, wasps) Specimen of Podalonia tydei (Le Guillou, 1841).jpg


Diptera (true flies) Common house fly, Musca domestica.jpg



Mecoptera (scorpionflies, hangingflies)

Gunzesrieder Tal Insekt 3.jpg

(exc. Boreidae, Nannochoristidae)

Boreidae (snow scorpionflies) Boreus hiemalis2 detail.jpg

Siphonaptera (fleas) Pulex irritans female ZSM.jpg


Trichoptera (caddisflies) Sericostoma.personatum.jpg

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Tyria jacobaeae-lo.jpg

See also

Hymenoptera Genome Database
Insects in literature (ant, bee, wasp)
Worker policing


Weaver J.S.I. The Evolution And Classification Of Trichoptera, With A Revision Of The Lepidostomatidae And A North American Synopsis Of This Family. Degree: Ph.D. Degree Year: 1983 Institute: Clemson University
Whiting, Michael F.; Whiting, Alison S.; Hastriter, Michael W.; Dittmar, Katharina (2008). "A molecular phylogeny of fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera): origins and host associations". Cladistics. 24 (5): 677–707. CiteSeerX doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2008.00211.x. S2CID 33808144.
Yeates, David K.; Wiegmann, Brian. "Endopterygota Insects with complete metamorphosis". Tree of Life. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
Whiting, Michael F. (2002). "Mecoptera is paraphyletic: multiple genes and phylogeny of Mecoptera and Siphonaptera". Zoologica Scripta. 31 (1): 93–104. doi:10.1046/j.0300-3256.2001.00095.x. S2CID 56100681. Archived from the original on 2013-01-05.
Wiegmann, Brian; Yeates, David K. (2012). The Evolutionary Biology of Flies. Columbia University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-231-50170-5.

Insects, Fine Art Prints

Insects Images

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