Fine Art

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Scarabaeiformia
Superfamilia: Scarabaeoidea

Familia: Lucanidae

Subfamiliae (4 + 3†): Aesalinae – Lampriminae – †Litholampriminae – Lucaninae – Syndesinae – †Ceruchitinae – †Protolucaninae

Overview of genera

Aegognathus – Aegus – Aesalus – Agnelius – Agnus – Allotopus – Altitatiayus – Amneidus – Andinolucanus – Aphanognathus – Apterocyclus – Apterodorcus – Arnaudius – Auxicerus – Bartolozziolucanus – Bomansius – Brasilucanus – Cacostomus – Caenolethrus – Calcodes – Cantharolethrus – Capreolucanus – Cardanus – Casignetus – Ceratognathus – Ceruchus – Charagmophorus – Chewlucanus – Chiasognathus – Chileistomus – Cladophyllus – Colophon – Cyclommatus – Cyclorasis – Dendezia - Dendroblax – Diasomoides – Dinonigidius – Dorculus – Dorcus – Dynodorcus – Echinoaesalus – Epipedesthus – Erichius – Eulepidius – Figulus – Ganelius – Geodorcus – Gnaphaloryx – Hemisodorcus – Heterochthes – Hexarthrius – Hilophyllus – Holloceratognathus – Homoderus – Homolamprima – Hoplogonus – Incadorcus – Irianoaegus – Katsuraius – Lamprima – Leptinopterus – Lissapterus – Lissotes – Lucanobium – Lucanus – Macrocrates – Macrodorcas – Mesotopus – Metadorcinus – Metadorcus – Metallactulus – Microlucanus – Mitophyllus – Neolucanus – Nicagus – Nigidionus – Nigidius – Noseolucanus – Novonigidius – Odontolabis – Onorelucanus – Oonotus – Paralissotes – Penichrolucanus – Phalacrognathus – Platyceroides – Platycerus – Platyfigulus – Prismognathus – Prosopocoilus – Pseudodorcus – Pseudorhaetus – Pseudoscortizus – Pycnosiphorus – Rhaetulus – Rhaetus – Ryssonotus – Safrina – Sclerostomulus – Sclerostomus – Scortizus – Serrognathus – Sinodendron – Sphaenognathus – Streptocerus – Syndesus – Telodorcus – Tetrarthrius – Trogellus – Velutinodorcus – Vinsonella – Weinreichius – Xiphodontus – Yumikoi – Zikanius – †Ceruchites – †Cretaesalus – †Cretolucanus – †Dorcasoides – †Juraesalus – †Miocenidorcus – †Paleognathus – †Prosinodendron – †Protognathinus – †Protolucanus – †Sinaesalus – †Succiniplatycerus

Lucanidae Latreille, 1804

Baba, M. 2008: A supplement of "The Lucanid beetles of the world, Mizunuma T. & S. Nagai, 1994": genera Prosopocoilus, Nigidius and Figulus from African region. Gekkan-Mushi, (450): 19–31. [in Japanese] [not seen]
Bartolozzi, L.; Werner, K. 2004: Illustrated catalogue of the Lucanidae from Africa and Madagascar. Taita Publishers: Czech Republic. ISBN 80-902734-7-5
Bartolozzi, L., Cianferoni, F. & Monte, C. 2011. Checklist of the Lucanidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) from the Indo-Australian transition zone. Pp. 43–58, plates 6–8 In: Telnov, D. (ed.) Biodiversity, Biogeography and Nature Conservation in Wallacea and New Guinea 1. Entomological Society of Latvia, Riga. ISBN 978-9984-9768-4-6. BHL. Reference page. 
Bartolozzi, L., Ghahari, H., Sprecher-Uebersax, E. & Zilioli, M. 2014. A checklist of stag beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae) from Iran. Zootaxa 3887(4): 422–436. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3887.4.2 Paywall. ResearchGate Open access. Reference page. 
Fujita, H. 2010: The lucanid beetles of the world. Mushi-Sha's iconographic series of insects, 6 [not seen] Reference page. 
Holloway, B.A. 1997: Elytral surface structures as indicators of relationships in stag beetles, with special reference to the New Zealand species (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 24(1): 47–64. DOI: 10.1080/03014223.1997.9518105 Reference page. 
Hu, X.-Y.; Bai, M.; Wan, X.; Yang, X.-K. 2012: Study on hind wing venation of Lucanidae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea) and the significance in systematics. Acta zootaxonomica sinica, 37(1): 54–61. [in Chinese, with English abstract] abstract and pdf
Huang, H.; Chen, C.-C. 2010: Stag beetles of China I. Taiwan. ISBN 978-986-86850-0-0 ISBN 9868685001 [not seen]
Kawano, K. 2000: Genera and allometry in the stag beetle family Lucanidae, Coleoptera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 93(2): 198–207. DOI: 10.1603/0013-8746(2000)093[0198:GAAITS]2.0.CO;2
Kim, S.I.; Kim, J-I. 2010: Review of family Lucanidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) in Korea with the description of one new species. Entomological research, 40: 55–81. ISSN: 1738-2297 DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5967.2009.00263.x
Krajcik, M. 2001: Lucanidae of the World. Catalogue - Part I, Checklist of the Stag Beetles of the World (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). Czech Republic.
Krajcik, M. 2003: Lucanidae of the World. Catalogue - Part II, Encyclopaedia of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). Czech Republic.
Maes, J.-M. 1992: Lista de los Lucanidae (Coleoptera) del mundo. Revista Nicaraguense de Entomologia, (22)
Mizunuma, T.; Nagai, S. 1994: The lucanid beetles of the world. Mushi-Sha, Tokyo. ISBN 9784943955016
Moore, B.P.; Cassis, G. 1992: Lucanidae. Pp. 4-19 in Houston, W.W.K. (ed.) Zoological catalogue of Australia. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea. Canberra: AGPS Vol. 9
Paulsen, M.J. 2010: The stag beetles of southern South America (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). Bulletin of University of Nebraska State Museum, 24: 1–148. abstract only seen
Reid, C.A.M. & Beatson, M. 2016. Revision of the stag beetle genus Ryssonotus MacLeay (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), with descriptions of a new genus and three new species. Zootaxa 4150(1): 1–39. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4150.1.1 Open access. Reference page. 
Smith, A.B.T. 2006: A review of the family-group names for the superfamily Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera) with corrections to nomenclature and a current classification. Coleopterists Society monograph, 5: 144–204. DOI: 10.1649/0010-065X(2006)60[144:AROTFN]2.0.CO;2 PDF
Smith, A.B.T.; Hawks, D.C.; Heraty, J.M. 2006: An overview of the classification and evolution of the major scarab beetle clades (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) based on preliminary molecular analyses. Coleopterists Society monograph, 5: 35–46. DOI: 10.1649/0010-065X(2006)60[35:AOOTCA]2.0.CO;2
Tanahashi, M.; Kubota, K.; Matsushita, N.; Togashi, K. 2010: Discovery of mycangia and the associated xylose-fermenting yeasts in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). Naturwissenschaften, 97: 311–317. DOI: 10.1007/s00114-009-0643-5
Yang, S.; Hu, X.; Zhong, F.; Zhao P. 2012: The survey of the family Lucanidae in the Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture of Guizhou Province. Sichuan journal of zoology, 31(1): 89–91. abstract and pdf
Zhang, M., Ruan, Y.-Y., Wan, X., Tong, Y.-J., Yang, X.-K. & Bai, M. 2019. Geometric morphometric analysis of the pronotum and elytron in stag beetles: insight into its diversity and evolution. ZooKeys 833: 21–40. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.833.26164 Open access. Reference page. 


Catalogue of Palearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 3 ed. I. Lobl, & A. Smetana, Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark, 2006
ISBN 87-88757-59-5, p.63

details not yet available

? 2011: Notes on some stag-beetles from Indochina, with descriptions of two new taxa. Gekkan-Mushi, (486): 13–18. [in Japanese] [not seen]


Australian Faunal Directory
Tree of Life Web Project. 2007. Lucanidae. Stag beetles. Version 02 May 2007 (temporary) in The Tree of Life Web Project
Classification of extinct and recent Coleoptera
Atlas of stag beetles (Lucanidae) of Russia - project of Eduard Berlov and Oleg Kabakov
NHM (London) collection holdings
Wikipedia:Taxonomy of Lucanidae

Vernacular names
беларуская: Рагачы
български: Рогачови
Deutsch: Schröter (Käfer)
English: Stag beetle
français: Lucane
magyar: Szarvasbogárfélék, szarvasbogarak
日本語: クワガタムシ科
한국어: 사슴벌레과
lietuvių: Elniavabaliai
македонски: Еленчиња
Nederlands: Vliegend hert
norsk: Hjortebiller
polski: Jelonkowate
русский: Рогачи
српски / srpski: Јеленци
ไทย: แมงคีม, ด้วงเขี้ยวกาง, ด้วงคีม
українська: Рогачі

Stag beetles are a family of about 1,200 species of beetles in the family Lucanidae, currently classified in four subfamilies.[1] Some species grow to over 12 centimetres (4+1⁄2 inches), but most to about 5 cm (2 in).

Dorcus curvidens male (left) and female (right)
Paralissotes sp. illustrated by Des Helmore

The English name is derived from the large and distinctive mandibles found on the males of most species, which resemble the antlers of stags.

A well-known species in much of Europe is Lucanus cervus, referred to in some European countries (including the United Kingdom) as the stag beetle; it is the largest terrestrial insect in Europe. Pliny the Elder noted that Nigidius called the beetle lucanus after the Italian region of Lucania where they were used as amulets. The scientific name of Lucanus cervus adds cervus, deer.

Male stag beetles are known for their oversize mandibles used to wrestle each other for favoured mating sites in a way that parallels the way stags fight over females. Fights may also be over food, such as tree sap and decaying fruits. Despite their often fearsome appearance, they are not normally aggressive to humans. During a battle the main objective is to dislodge its opponent's tarsal claws with its mandible, thus disrupting their balance. Because its mandibles are capable of exceeding its own body size, stag beetles are generally inefficient runners, and typically fly from one location to another. [2]

Female stag beetles are usually smaller than the males, with smaller mandibles that are much more powerful than the males'.[3] As larvae, females are distinguished by their cream-coloured, fat ovaries visible through the skin around two-thirds of the way down their back.

The larvae feed for several years on rotting wood, growing through three larval stages until eventually pupating inside a pupal cell constructed from surrounding wood pieces and soil particles. In the final larval stage, "L3", the surviving grubs of larger species, such as Prosopocoilus giraffa, may be the size of a human finger.

In England’s New Forest, it was once believed that the stag beetle, dubbed the “devil’s imp,” was sent to do some evil to the corn crops. The superstition led to stoning the insects on sight, as observed by a writer in the Notes and Queries.[4] Along with rhinoceros beetles, stag beetles are often bought as pets in South Korea and Japan.[5][6]
See also: Taxonomy of Lucanidae

The oldest known fossil of the group is Juraesalus from the late Middle Jurassic (Callovian) Daohugou Beds of Inner Mongolia, China. While initially interpreted as a member of Aesalinae, it was later interpreted to be a basal member of the family.[7]
Antler allometry
Antler allometry in Prosopocoilus savagei

The Lucanidae have (male-only) antlers. Their size often varies among individuals. Such variation is termed a scaling relationship or static allometry. Environmental conditions of development affect antler size, but genetic factors are active.[citation needed]

Smith, A.B.T. (2006). A review of the family-group names for the superfamily Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera) with corrections to nomenclature and a current classification. The Coleopterists Bulletin 60:144–204.
: Goyens J, Van Wassenbergh S, Dirckx J, Aerts P. 2015 Cost of flight and the evolution of stag beetle weaponry. J. R. Soc. Interface 12: 20150222.
"How to help stag beetles" (PDF). London Wildlife Trust. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 2, 2017. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
Cowan, Frank (December 15, 2012). "Curious Facts in the History of Insects; Including Spiders and Scorpions, by Frank Cowan—A Project Gutenberg eBook". Retrieved 2022-03-16.
"[남상호 자연 다큐/곤충 세계 여행④]곤충도 '황금알'을 낳는다". 시사저널 (in Korean). 2001-09-28. Retrieved 2020-07-26.
Lombardi, Linda (26 May 2014). "How to Care for Your Beetle". Archived from the original on 6 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D. (May 2015). "Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 86: 35–48. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.02.015. PMID 25732069.

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