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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Lycaenidae
Subfamilia: Lycaeninae
Genera: ApangeaAthamanthiaHeliophorusHyrcananaIophanusLycaenaMelanolycaenaNesaThersamonolycaena


Lycaeninae Leach, 1815. [See talk page]

Athamanthini S.K. Korb, 2005 (synonymized by Bolshakov, 2005: 75)


Bolshakov, L.V., 2007: Notes on some controversial taxa of Lepidoptera from European Russia, with critical remarks about <<A catalogue of butterflies of the ex-USSR, with remarks on systematics and nomenclature>> by. S.K. Korb. Caucasian Entomological Bulletin, 3 (1): 75–80. Abstract: [1].
Charmeux, J.F. & J.M. Desse 2006. Bilan de huit séjours au Pakistan et description de Cupido nagarensis sp. nova et de Palasa gohlshali sp. nova. Bulletin des Lépidoptéristes Parisiens 14(35): 81–136. Reference page.
Eliot, J.N. 1973. The higher classification of the Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera): a tentative arrangement. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), entomology 28(6): 371-505. Reference page.
Leach, W.E. 1815. Entomology [pp. 57–172]. In: Brewster, D. (Ed). Brewster’s Edinburgh Encyclopedia. Volume IX [part I]. W. Blackwood, J. Waugh, etc., Edinburgh, 764 pp. BHL Reference page.
Lukhtanov, V.A. 1993. Athamanthia eitschbergeri spec. nov., eine neue Art aus Kirghisien (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Lycaeninae). Atalanta 24(1/2): 71–74. PDF Reference page.
Sibatani, A. 1974: A new genus for two new species of Lycaeninae (S. STR.) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) from Papua New Guinea. Australian Journal of Entomology 13 (2): 95–110. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-6055.1974.tb02161.x Open access. Reference page.
Wakahara, H., Miyamoto, T. & Nakamura, N. 2008. Notes on the butterflies of Laos (III): Discovery and description of a new subspecies of Helleia tseng (Oberthür, 1886) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) from central Laos. Butterflies (Teinopalpus) 50: 42–49. Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: Coppers
suomi: Kultasiivet
日本語: ベニシジミ亜科
中文: 灰蝶亞科

Lycaeninae, the coppers, are a subfamily of the gossamer-winged butterflies (Lycaenidae).

The relationships of the Lycaenidae are not fully resolved. Sometimes the Polyommatinae and Theclinae are included in the Lycaeninae; in particular the Theclinae tribe Eumaeini contains many similar taxa. Consequently, the delimitation of the Lycaeninae is by no means definitely resolved; many genera await conformation of placement. Regardless, it is today generally considered better to restrict the Lycaeninae to the immediate relatives of the type genus Lycaena, and one or two clades close to that group.[1]


The Lycaeninae sensu stricto can be divided into two tribes:[1]

Heliophorus – sapphires
Gaeides (often included in Lycaena)
Lycaena – typical coppers

A few genera included in the Lycaeninae in the most extensive circumscriptions are now placed in subfamilies as distinct as the Poritiinae. Finally, there are some genera of uncertain status as regards their systematics and taxonomic validity. They might, if valid, be members of the monophyletic Lycaeninae, but this requires confirmation:



Brower (2008)

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lycaeninae.

Brower, Andrew V.Z. (2008): Tree of Life Web Project – Lycaeninae. Version of 2008-APR-29. Retrieved 2009-FEB-18.

Further reading

Glassberg, Jeffrey Butterflies through Binoculars, The West (2001)
James, David G. and Nunnallee, David Life Histories of Cascadia Butterflies (2011)
Pelham, Jonathan Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada (2008)
Pyle, Robert Michael The Butterflies of Cascadia (2002)

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