Fine Art

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea
Familiae (8): AenigmatineidaeHedylidaeHesperiidaeLycaenidaeNymphalidaePapilionidaePieridaeRiodinidae


Papilionoidea Latreille, 1802.

Hesperioidea Latreille, 1809.
Hedyloidea Scoble, 1986.


Latreille, P.A. 1802. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes. Ouvrage faisant suite à l’histoire naturelle générale et particulière, composée par Leclerc de Buffon, et rédigée par C.S. Sonnini, membre de plusieurs sociétés savantes. Familles naturelles des genres. Tome troisième. F. Dufart, Paris, xii + pp. 13–467 + [1 (errata)]. BHL Reference page.
Bivar de Sousa, A., Vasconcelos, S., Mendes, L.F., Larsen, T.B., Baker, J. & Guilherme, J.L. 2016. Butterflies of Guinea-Bissau: VIII. New data, new reports, corrections and biodiversity (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Zootaxa 4201(1): 1–77. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4201.1.1. Reference page.
Bland, K.P. 2019. Name-bearing types of butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea), in the National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh. Zootaxa 4559(1): 57–89. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4559.1.2 Paywall Reference page.
Braby, M.F. 2000: Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood, Victoria, Australia. ISBN 0 643 06591 1 (set) ISBN 0 643 06492 3 (v. 1) ISBN 0 643 06493 1 (v. 2)
Braby, M.F. 2010: The merging of taxonomy and conservation biology: a synthesis of Australian butterfly systematics (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) for the 21st century. Zootaxa, 2707: 1–76. Preview
Braby, M.F. 2011: Revised checklist of Australian butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea): addendum and errata. Zootaxa, 3128: 67–68. Preview
Bridges, C.A. 1994. Catalogue of the Family-Group, Genus-Group and Species-Group Names of the Hesperioidea (Lepidoptera) of the World. Bridges, Urbana, Illinois. BHL Reference page.
Carvalho, A.P.S., Orr, A.G. & Kawahara, A.Y. 2017. A review of the occurrence and diversity of the sphragis in butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea). ZooKeys 694: 41–70. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.694.13097 Reference page.
de Jong, R. 2017. Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Zootaxa 4270(1): 1–63. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4270.1.1. Reference page.
De Prins, W. & van der Poorten, D., 1995. Rhopalocera and Grypocera of Turkey 14. Taxonomic revision of the Pyrgus alveus (Hübner, [1803]) complex from Greece to West China, with description of two new species from southern Turkey (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Phegea 23(1): 1-44 (PDF). Reference page.
Espeland, M., Breinholt, J.W., Willmott, K.R., Warren, A.D., Vila, R., Toussaint, E.F.A., Maunsell, S.C., Aduse-Poku, K., Talavera, G., Eastwood, R., Jarzyna, M.A., Guralnick, R., Lohman, D.J., Pierce, N.E. & Kawahara, A.Y. 2018. A Comprehensive and Dated Phylogenomic Analysis of Butterflies. Current Biology 28(5): 770–778. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.01.061 Reference page.
Franeta, F. 2018. Checklist of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) of Montenegro. Zootaxa 4392(1): 128–148. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4392.1.6 Reference page.
Heikkilä, M., Kaila, L., Mutanen, M., Peña, C. & Wahlberg, N. 2011. Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279(1731): 1093–1099. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2011.1430 Open access. Reference page.
Kawahara, A.Y. & Breinholt, J.W. 2014. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281(1788): 20140970. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0970 Open access. Reference page.
Kristensen, N.P., Hilton, D.J., Kallies, A., Milla, L., Rota, J., Wahlberg, N., Wilcox, S.A., Glatz, R.V., Young, D.A., Cocking, G., Edwards, T., Gibbs, G.W. & Halsey, M. 2015. A new extant family of primitive moths from Kangaroo Island, Australia, and its significance for understanding early Lepidoptera evolution. Systematic entomology 40(1): 5–16. Wiley Lib. Reference page.
Korb, S.K. & Bolshakov, L.V., 2016. A systematic catalogue of butterflies of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lituania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) with special account to their type specimens (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea). Zootaxa 4160(1): 1–324. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4160.1.1. Reference page.
Lindsey, A.W. 1921. The Hesperioidea of America North of Mexico. University of Iowa City, Studies in Natural History, IX(4): 114 pp, 31 figs, 2 pls. Reference page.
Luis-Martínez, A., Covarrubias, A.A. & Llorente-Bousquets, J. 2017. Papilionoidea (Insecta: Lepidoptera) type specimens at the Museo de Zoología “Alfonso L. Herrera” from Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Zootaxa 4232(2): 151–172. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4232.2.1. Reference page.
van Nieukerken, E.J., Kaila, L., Kitching, I.J., Kristensen, N.P., Lees, D.C., Minet, J., Mitter, C., Mutanen, M., Regier, J.C., Simonsen, T.J., Wahlberg, N., Yen, S-H., Zahiri, R., Adamski, D., Baixeras, J., Bartsch, D., Bengtsson, B.A., Brown, J.W., Bucheli, S.R., Davis, D.R., de Prins, J., de Prins, W., Epstein, M.C., Gentili-Poole, P., Gielis, C., Hättenschwiler, P., Hausmann, A., Holloway, J.D., Kallies, A., Karsholt, O., Kawahara, A.Y., Koster, S., Kozlov, M.V., Lafontaine, J.D., Lamas, G., Landry, J-F., Lee, S., Nuss, M., Park, K-T., Penz, C.M., Rota, J., Schintlmeister, A., Schmidt, B.C., Sohn, J-C., Solis, M.A., Tarmann, G.M., Warren, A.D., Weller, S., Yaklovlev, R.V., Zolotuhin, V.V. & Zwick, A. 2011. Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758. Pp 212–221 In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) 2011. Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 1–237. Open access. Reference page. PDF. Reference page.
Patrick, B.; Patrick, H. 2012: Butterflies of the South Pacific. Otago University Press. Reference page.
Popović, M. & Verovnik, R. 2018. Revised checklist of the butterflies of Serbia (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Zootaxa 4438(3): 501–527. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4438.3.5 Paywall Reference page.
Schweiger, O. et al. 2014: CLIMBER: Climatic niche characteristics of the butterflies in Europe. ZooKeys 367: 65-84. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.367.6185 Reference page.
Skinner, H. 1898. A Synonymic Catalogue of the North American Rhopalocera. 99pp. American Entomological Society, Philadelphia. BHL Reference page.
Souza, P.R.B. de & Guillermo-Ferreira, R. 2015. Butterflies of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea). ZooKeys 546: 105-124. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.546.6138 Full article Reference page.
Wiemers, M., Balletto, E., Dincă, V., Fric, Z.F., Lamas, G., Lukhtanov, V.A., Munguira, M.L., van Swaay, C.A.M., Vila, R., Vliegenthart, A., Wahlberg, N. & Verovnik, R. 2018. An updated checklist of the European Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea). Zookeys, 811: 9–45. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.811.28712 Reference page.
Wiemers, M., Chazot, N., Wheat, C.W., Schweiger, O. & Wahlberg, N. 2020. A complete time-calibrated multi-gene phylogeny of the European butterflies. ZooKeys, 938: 97–124. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.938.50878 Open access Reference page.
Yoshimoto, J., Salinas-Gutiérrez, J.L., Barrios, M, & Warren, A.D. 2022. An updated list of butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea) of two Guatemalan seasonally dry forests. Zookeys 1118ː 21–38. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1118.85810 Open access Reference page.

Vernacular names
Akan: Afrafranto
English: Butterfly
español: papilionoideas, mariposas
suomi: Päiväperhoset
日本語: アゲハチョウ上科
kurdî: Perperok,Pelîtank,Baperik
Türkçe: Kelebek
中文: 真蝶總科,凤蝶总科

The superfamily Papilionoidea (from the genus Papilio, meaning "butterfly") contains all the butterflies except for the moth-like Hedyloidea.

The members of the Papilionoidea may be distinguished by the following combination of characters:

The body is smaller and less moth-like.
The wings are larger.
The antennae are straight and clubbed or hooked as in the skippers.
The caterpillars do not spin cocoons in which to pupate.
The pupae are angular rather than rounded.

Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest the traditionally circumscribed Papilionoidea are a paraphyletic group, and that skippers (family Hesperiidae) and Neotropical moth-like butterflies (family Hedylidae) are true butterflies that should be included within the Papilionoidea superfamily to reflect cladistic relationships.[1][2]
Families of Papilionoidea

The six well-supported families of Papilionoidea are:

Hesperiidae[1] (skippers)
Swallowtails and birdwings, Papilionidae
Whites or yellow-whites, Pieridae
Blues and coppers or gossamer-winged butterflies, Lycaenidae
Metalmark butterflies, Riodinidae
Brush-footed butterflies, Nymphalidae which contain the following 13 subfamilies:
The snout butterflies or Libytheinae (formerly the family Libytheidae)
The danaids or Danainae (formerly the family Danaidae)
The Tellervinae
The glasswings or Ithomiinae
The Calinaginae
The morphos and owls or Morphinae (including the owls as tribe Brassolini)
The browns or Satyrinae (formerly the family Satyridae)
The Charaxinae (preponas and leaf butterflies)
The Biblidinae
The Apaturinae
The nymphs or Nymphalinae
The Limenitidinae (especially the adelphas)
The tropical longwings or Heliconiinae

Of the subfamilies of Nymphalidae, only the Morphinae and Satyrinae are possibly paraphyletic, but these two subfamilies form a strongly supported clade with the Charaxinae as sister group.[3]
See also: Prehistoric Lepidoptera § Superfamily Papilionoidea

The fossil genus Lithopsyche is apparently a Papilionoidea incertae sedis, which has long been mistaken for a geometer moth of the Boarmiini. It is variously placed in the Lycaenidae or Riodinidae. A similar fossil, Lithodryas, is more firmly assigned to the Lycaenidae, but might belong to the Nymphalidae. Riodinella, yet another prehistoric genus, also seems to belong here, but its relationships are quite obscure, indeed. However, these fossils – all found in Eocene deposits dating roughly between 50 and 25[verification needed] million years ago – suggest the radiation of the Papilionoidea into the present-day families took place during that epoch. Prodryas, from the end of the Eocene, can be quite robustly assigned to the Nymphalidae, and is quite likely a member of the Nymphalini. Oligocene fossils of Papilionoidea are usually assignable to an extant family without problems.

Taken together, these fossils place the origin of the Papilionoidea in the latest Mesozoic or early Paleogene, while the extant families emerged around the early Eocene onwards.
Wikispecies has information related to Papilionoidea.

Heikkilä, M., Kaila, L., Mutanen, M., Peña, C., & Wahlberg, N. (2012). "Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1731): 1093–1099. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1430. PMC 3267136. PMID 21920981.
Kawahara, A. Y., & Breinholt, J. W. (2014). "Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 281 (1788): 20140970. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.0970. PMC 4083801. PMID 24966318.
Gerardo Lamas (2008) Systematics of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) in the world: current state and future perspectives (in Spanish). In: Jorge Llorente-Bousquets and Analía Lanteri (eds.) Contribuiciones taxonómicas en ordens de insectos hiperdiversos. Mexico City: UNAM. Pp. 57-70.

Insects, Fine Art Prints

Insects Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World