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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Supercohort: Polyneoptera
Cohorts: Anartioptera - Dictyoptera
[list of cohorts after Arillo & Engel (2006: 10, appendix 2)]
Overview of ordines

Blattodea - Dermaptera - Embiodea - Isoptera - Mantodea - Notoptera - Orthoptera - Phasmatodea - Plecoptera - Zoraptera - "†Aeroplanoptera" - †Caloneurodea - †Cnemidolestodea - †Glosselytrodea - "†Permoplecoptera" - "†Protelytroptera" (partim) - †Titanoptera
Familiae incertae sedis




Arillo, A.; Engel, M.S. 2006: Rock crawlers in Baltic amber (Notoptera: Mantophasmatodea). American Museum Novitates, (3539): 1–10. PDF PDF
Gorochov A.V., 2011. A new, enigmatic family for new genus and species of Polyneoptera from the Upper Permian of Russia. ZooKeys 130: 131–136. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.130.1487 Open access.
Hamilton, K.G.A. 2003: Cnemidolestodea: an ancient insect order resurrected. Biodiversity, 4: 22–24.
Letsch, H. & Simon, S. 2013. Insect phylogenomics: new insights on the relationships of lower neopteran orders (Polyneoptera). Systematic entomology 38(4): 783–793. DOI: 10.1111/syen.12028 Paywall. Reference page.
Macháčková, L.; Fikáček, M. 2014: Catalogue of the type specimens deposited in the Department of Entomology, National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic. Polyneoptera. Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 54(1): 399–450. Biotaxa Reference page.
Martins-Neto, R.G. ; O.F. Gallego ; C. Brauckmann & J.L. Cruz 2007: A review of the South American Palaeozoic entomofauna Part 1: the Ischnoneuroidea and Cacurgoidea, with description of new taxa. African Invertebrates 48 (1): 87–101. Full article: [1].

Vernacular names
日本語: 多新翅類
中文: 多新翅總目

The cohort Polyneoptera[1][2] is a proposed taxonomic ranking for the Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, etc.) and all other Neopteran insects believed to be more closely related to Orthoptera than to any other insect orders. These winged insects, now in the Paraneoptera, were formerly grouped as the Hemimetabola or Exopterygota on the grounds that they have no metamorphosis, the wings gradually developing externally throughout the nymphal stages.[3]


The Polyneoptera Species File lists the following:[4]
Superorder Dictyoptera

Blattodea – cockroaches and termites
Mantodea – praying mantises

Superorder Orthopterida

Synonyms include: Archaeorthoptera, Gryllidea, Orthopterodea, Orthopterodida, Orthopteroidea, Panorthoptera

Orthoptera – 2 extant suborders:
Caelifera – grasshoppers, groundhoppers, pygmy mole-crickets
Ensifera – crickets, mole-crickets, katydids or bush crickets, camel crickets, wetas, etc.
†Titanoptera – from the Triassic period
order Incertae sedis
family †Cacurgidae Handlirsch, 1911
family †Chresmodidae Haase, 1890
family †Permostridulidae Béthoux, Nel, Lapeyrie & Gand, 2003
family †Protophasmatidae Brongniart, 1885
genus †Chenxiella Liu, Ren & Prokop, 2009
genus †Lobeatta Béthoux, 2005
genus †Nectoptilus Béthoux, 2005
genus †Sinopteron Prokop & Ren, 2007

Superorder †Perlidea (synonym Plecopteroidea)


Superorder Anartioptera

Dermaptera – earwigs


†family Xiphopteridae Sharov 1968
†family Prochresmodidae Vishnyakova 1980
†family Aeroplanidae Tillyard 1918
† family Cretophasmatidae Sharov 1968
† family Aerophasmatidae Martynov, 1928
Phasmatodea – stick and leaf insects

Superorder not placed

Embioptera – web-spinners
Notoptera – redefined in 2006 to include Grylloblattidae (ice-crawlers) and Mantophasmatidae (gladiators)
Plecoptera – stone-flies
Zoraptera – angel insects


Song et al 2016 propose a molecular phylogeny for the Polyneoptera, as shown in the phylogenetic tree:[5]


Dermaptera (earwigs) Earwig on white background.jpg

Plecoptera (stoneflies) Neoperla clymene hor.png

Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets) Gryllidae usda.png

Grylloblattodea (ice crawlers) Grylloblattidae (white background).jpg

Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Mantophasma zephyra (white background).jpg

Zoraptera (angel insects) Zorotypus guineensis (white background).jpg

Embioptera (webspinners) Embia major hor.png

Phasmatodea (stick insects) Stick insect line diagram.png

Mantodea (mantises) Stagmomantis carolina usda hor.png

Blattodea (inc. Isoptera) (cockroaches, termites) Temnopteryx species Zebra Cockroach (white background).jpg


Martynov, AV (1938). "Studies on the geological history and phylogeny of the orders of insects (Pterygota)". Tr. Paleont. Inst. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR (in Russian). 7 (4): 70.
Delclos; Nel; Azar; Bechly; Dunlop; Engel; Heads (2008). "The enigmatic Mesozoic insect taxon Chresmodidae (Polyneoptera): New palaeobiological and phylogenetic data, with the description of a new species from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen. 247 (3): 353–381. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2008/0247-0353.
Entomology Endopterygota. Royal Entomological Society. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
Polyneoptera, Species File (Version 5.0/5.0; retrieved 5 September 2020)
Song, Nan; Li, Hu; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi (26 October 2016). "Molecular phylogeny of Polyneoptera (Insecta) inferred from expanded mitogenomic data". Scientific Reports. 6 (1). doi:10.1038/srep36175. ISSN 2045-2322.

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