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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Hymenopterida
Ordo: Hymenoptera
Subordo: Apocrita
Superfamilia: Vespoidea

Familia: Vespidae
Subfamilia: Polistinae
Genus: Ropalidia
Species: R. nigra – R. obscura – R. parartifex – R. vietnama

Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville, 1831

Zuba Cheesman, 1952


Blommers, L.H.M., 2012: Taxonomy and natural history of 18 Ropalidia species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) of Madagascar. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 155: 133–192.
Tan, J.-L.; Achterberg, K. van; Chen, X.-X. 2014: Pictorial key to species of the genus Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville, 1831 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) from China, with description of one new species. ZooKeys 391: 1-35. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.391.6606 Reference page.

Ropalidia is a large genus of eusocial paper wasps in the tribe Ropalidiini distributed throughout the Afrotropical, Indomalayan and Australasian biogeographical regions. The genus Ropalidia is unique because it contains both independent and swarm-founding species.[1] Ropalidia romandi is one of the swarm founding species, meaning that new nests are founded by a large group of workers with a smaller number of inseminated females (egg-laying foundresses),[2] while Ropalidia revolutionalis is independent-founding, meaning that each nest is founded by a single foundress.[3]


Ropalidia contains the following species:

Ropalidia aethiopica (Buysson, 1906)
Ropalidia albobalteata (Cameron 1906)
Ropalidia anarchia (Saussure, 1853)
Ropalidia andamanensis Das & Gupta, 1989
Ropalidia antennata (Saussure, 1890)
Ropalidia aristocratica (Saussure, 1853)
Ropalidia artifex (Saussure, 1853)
Ropalidia atra (Saussure, 1890)
Ropalidia australis (Saussure, 1854)
Ropalidia bambusae Richards, 1978
Ropalidia bensoni Richards, 1978
Ropalidia bicincta (Saussure, 1890)
Ropalidia bicolor (Smith, 1865)
Ropalidia bicolorata Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia bidens Vecht, 1996
Ropalidia binghami Vecht, 1941
Ropalidia bipartita Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia bispinosa (Meade-Waldo)
Ropalidia brazzai (Buysson 1906)
Ropalidia brevita Das & Gupta, 1989
Ropalidia brunnea (Smith 1859)
Ropalidia canaria Cheesm., 1952
Ropalidia capensis (Saussure, 1862)
Ropalidia carinata (Saussure, 1890)
Ropalidia catharinae (Cameron, 1913)
Ropalidia celebensis Vecht, 1941
Ropalidia cincta (Lepeletier, 1836)
Ropalidia clavata (Saussure, 1853)
Ropalidia clypeata Kojima 1996
Ropalidia colorata Vecht, 1941
Ropalidia conservator (Smith, 1860)
Ropalidia conspicua Smith, 1863
Ropalidia constitutionalis (Saussure, 1853)
Ropalidia copiaria (Saussure, 1862)
Ropalidia crassa Vecht, 1941
Ropalidia crassipunctata Giordani Soika, 1981
Ropalidia cristata Kojima, 1989
Ropalidia curvilineata (Cameron 1908)
Ropalidia cyathiformis (Fabricius, 1804)
Ropalidia darwini Richards, 1978
Ropalidia deceptor (Smith, 1863)
Ropalidia decorata (Smith 1858)
Ropalidia deminutiva Cheesm., 1952
Ropalidia democratica (Saussure, 1853)
Ropalidia dichroma Vecht, 1941
Ropalidia dispila (Cameron 1913)
Ropalidia distigma (Gerst., 1857)
Ropalidia dubia (Saussure, 1853)
Ropalidia ducalis (Saussure, 1900)
Ropalidia duchaussoyi (Gribodo, 1896)
Ropalidia eboraca Richards, 1978
Ropalidia elegantula Richards, 1978
Ropalidia erythrospila (Cameron, 1908)
Ropalidia eurostoma Richards 1978
Ropalidia excavata Giordani Soika, 1977
Ropalidia extrema Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia fasciata (Fabricius 1804)
Ropalidia festina (Smith, 1864)
Ropalidia flavobrunnea Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia flavopicta (Smith, 1857)
Ropalidia fluviatilis (Meade-Waldo, 1912)
Ropalidia formosa (Saussure, 1854)
Ropalidia fraterna (Saussure, 1900)
Ropalidia fulvopruinosa (Cameron, 1906)
Ropalidia galimatia (Saussure, 1853)
Ropalidia gemmea Cheesm., 1952
Ropalidia gracilenta Richards, 1978
Ropalidia gracilis (Smith, 1859)
Ropalidia grandidieri (Saussure, 1890)
Ropalidia granulata Vecht, 1941
Ropalidia gregaria (Saussure, 1854)
Ropalidia guttatipennis (Saussure, 1853)
Ropalidia hirsuta Richards 1978
Ropalidia hongkongensis (Saussure, 1854)
Ropalidia horni Sonan, 1938
Ropalidia impetuosa (Smith, 1861)
Ropalidia incurva Cheesm., 1952
Ropalidia inquieta Cheesm., 1952
Ropalidia interjecta (Saussure, 1900)
Ropalidia interrupta Vecht, 1941
Ropalidia irrequieta (Kohl, 1906)
Ropalidia irritata (Smith, 1864)
Ropalidia jacobsoni (Buysson, 1908)
Ropalidia jaculator (Smith 1871)
Ropalidia javanica Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia kurandae Richards, 1978
Ropalidia latebalteata (Cameron, 1902)
Ropalidia latetergum Richards, 1978
Ropalidia laticincta Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia lefebvrei Guill., 1841
Ropalidia leopoldi Bequard, 1932
Ropalidia lepida Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia longipetiolata (Cameron, 1911)
Ropalidia loriana (Buysson, 1910)
Ropalidia lugubris (Smith, 1858)
Ropalidia luzonensis Kojima, 1996
Ropalidia mackayensis Richards, 1978
Ropalidia maculata (Rad., 1881)
Ropalidia maculiventris Guerin, 1831
Ropalidia magnanima Vecht, 1941
Ropalidia malaisei Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia malayana (Cameron 1903)
Ropalidia marginata (Lepeletier, 1836)
Ropalidia mathematica (Smith, 1861)
Ropalidia melania Richards, 1978
Ropalidia mimikae (Meade-Waldo, 1912)
Ropalidia minor Saussure, 1900
Ropalidia modesta (Smith, 1858)
Ropalidia montana Carl 1934
Ropalidia mutabilis Richards, 1978
Ropalidia myosolica (Dalla Torre)
Ropalidia nigerrima Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia nigra (Smith 1859)
Ropalidia nigrescens Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia nigrior Richards, 1978
Ropalidia nigrita Das & Gupta, 1989
Ropalidia nigrofemorata (Cameron, 1910)
Ropalidia nilssoni Giordani Soika, 1991
Ropalidia nitidula (Saussure, 1890)
Ropalidia nobilis (Gerst., 1857)
Ropalidia novaeguinaea (Schulthess, 1913)
Ropalidia novissima Giordani Soika, 1944
Ropalidia nursei Vecht, 1941
Ropalidia obscura Gusenleitner, 1966
Ropalidia obscurior Giordani Soika, 1991
Ropalidia ochracea Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia opifex Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia opulenta (Smith, 1857)
Ropalidia ornaticeps (Cameron, 1900)
Ropalidia palawana Kojima, 1985
Ropalidia papuana (Cameron)
Ropalidia pendula (Smith, 1857)
Ropalidia petulans Cheesm., 1952
Ropalidia phalansterica (Saussure, 1853)
Ropalidia philippinensis (Saussure, 1854)
Ropalidia pilosa (Smith, 1859)
Ropalidia plebeja (Saussure 1862)
Ropalidia plebeiana Richards, 1978
Ropalidia politica (Saussure, 1854)
Ropalidia prasina (Saussure, 1900)
Ropalidia principalis Kojima, 2001
Ropalidia proletaria Richards 1978
Ropalidia pseudomalayana Kojima, 1996
Ropalidia pulchella (Saussure, 1900)
Ropalidia ranavali (Saussure, 1890)
Ropalidia reactionalis (Saussure, 1854)
Ropalidia regina (Saussure, 1900)
Ropalidia revolutionalis (Saussure, 1854)
Ropalidia romandi (Guill., 1841)
Ropalidia rufocollaris (Cameron, 1900)
Ropalidia rufoplagiata (Cameron 1905)
Ropalidia sakalava (Saussure, 1900)
Ropalidia santoshae Das & Gupta, 1989
Ropalidia saussurei Kojima, 1998
Ropalidia schulthessi (Saussure, 1890)
Ropalidia scitula (Bingham, 1897)
Ropalidia scottiana (Saussure, 1890)
Ropalidia sculpturata Gusenleitner, 2001
Ropalidia semihyalineata (Meade-Waldo, 1912)
Ropalidia sericea Cameron, 1905
Ropalidia sexmaculata (Cameron)
Ropalidia shestakowi Schulthess, 1931
Ropalidia socialis (Saussure, 1862)
Ropalidia socialistica (Saussure, 1854)
Ropalidia spatulata Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia spilostoma (Cameron, 1906)
Ropalidia stigma (Smith, 1858)}}
Ropalidia subclavata (Saussure, 1890)
Ropalidia sumatrae (Weber, 1801)
Ropalidia taiwana Sonan 1935
Ropalidia thailandia Gusenleitner 1994
Ropalidia timida Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia tomentosa (Gerst., 1857)
Ropalidia trichophthalma Richards, 1978
Ropalidia trimaculata Vecht, 1962
Ropalidia turneri Richards, 1978
Ropalidia unicolor (Smith, 1859)
Ropalidia unidentata Giordani Soika, 1981
Ropalidia variabilis (Saussure, 1890)
Ropalidia variegata (Smith, 1852)
Ropalidia velutina (Saussure, 1890)
Ropalidia venustula (Saussure, 1900)
Ropalidia vietnama Gusenleitner, 1996
Ropalidia vitripennis (Saussure, 1890)
Ropalidia wollastoni (Meade-Waldo, 1912)
Ropalidia zonata (Cameron)


Yamane, Soichi; Ito, Yosiaki (1994). "Nest architecture of the Australian paper wasp Ropalidia romandi cabeti, with a note on its developmental process (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)". Psyche. 101 (3–4): 145–158. doi:10.1155/1994/92839.
Hunt, James H. (2007). The Evolution of Social Wasps. Oxford University Press. pp. 57–60.
Yosiaki, Itô (1987). "Social behaviour of the Australian paper wasp, Ropalidia revolutionalis (de Saussure) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)". Journal of Ethology. 5: 115–124. doi:10.1007/bf02349943.

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