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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Hesperiidae
Subfamilia: Pyrginae
Tribus: Achlyodidini
Genera: AchylodesAethillaAtarnesCabirusCharidiaDoberesEantis – Eburuncus – GindanesGraisHaemactisLividaMilanionOuleusParamimusPythonidesQuadrusTostaZera


Bell, E.L., 1956: Descriptions of some new species of neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). American Museum novitates 1778: 1–13. Full article: [1].
Grishin, N.V., 2012: Uncus shaped akin to elephant tusks defines a new genus for two very different-in-appearance Neotropical skippers (Hesperiidae: Pyrginae). The Journal of Research on the Lepidopterologica 45: 101–112.
Li, W., Cong. Q., Shen, J.H., Zhang, J., Hallwachs, W., Janzen, D.H. & Grishin, N.V. 2019. Genomes of skipper butterflies reveal extensive convergence of wing patterns. PNAS 116(13): 6232–6237. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821304116. Text. SI Appendix. Reference page.
Steinhauser, S.R., 1989: Taxonomic notes and descriptions of new taxa in the neotropical Hesperiidae. Part I. Pyrginae. Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 127: 1–70. Full article: [2].
Warren, A.D., Ogawa, J.R. & Brower, A.V.Z. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies and circumscription of tribes in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea). Cladistics 24(5): 642–676. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2008.00218.x PDF Reference page.

The Achlyodidini (sometimes – but apparently in error[1] – spelled Achylodidini) are a tribe in the skipper butterfly subfamily Pyrginae. Many species of them are notable for their (by skipper butterfly standards) gaudy colors and the unusually-shaped wings, which look as if the forewing tips have been squarely cut off. They are only found in the Americas, with few occurring out of tropical areas.[2]

Formerly, when only four tribes of Pyrginae were recognized, they were included in the Pyrgini, which at that time contained a massive number of genera. But the Pyrginae have since been reorganized to make them and their tribes monophyletic, leading most modern authors to treat the Achlyodidini as distinct tribe. However, they are the tribe most closely related to the Pyrgini sensu stricto, and the old circumscription of the Pyrgini was by and large just as correct from a phylogenetic perspective.[2]

The other two tribes of the Pyrgini sensu lato – the Carcharodini and Erynnini – are not as strikingly autapomorphic as the Achlyodidini, but they are more distant relatives of the Pyrgini sensu stricto than the present tribe. Thus, they cannot be included in the Pyrgini without also including the Achlyodidini, and consequently the four-way split of the Pyrgini is more informative than to lump half the known evolutionary diversity of Pyrginae into one huge tribe.[2]

The genera are listed in the presumed phylogenetic sequence:[2]

Aethilla Hewitson, 1868
Eantis – sicklewings


Wahlberg fide Savela (2008)

Brower & Warren (2009)

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Achlyodidini.

Brower, Andrew V.Z. & Warren, Andrew (2009): Tree of Life Web Project – Achlyodidini. Version of 2009-JUN-14. Retrieved 2009-DEC-26.
Savela, Markku (2008): Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and some other life forms – Achlyodes. Version of 2008-JUN-17. Retrieved 2008-JAN-24.

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