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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Antliophora
Ordo: Diptera
Subordo: Brachycera
Infraordo: Muscomorpha
Sectio: Schizophora
Subsectio: Acalyptrata
Superfamilia: Ephydroidea

Familia: Drosophilidae
Subfamilia: Drosophilinae - Steganinae
Overview of genera

Acletoxenus – Allopygaea – AmiotaApenthecia – Apsiphortica – Arengomyia – Baeodrosophila – Balara – Bialba – Cacoxenus – Calodrosophila – Celidosoma – Chymomyza – Collessia – Colocasiomyia – CrincosiaDettopsomyia – Diathoneura – Dichaetophora – Dicladochaeta – Drosophila – Electrophortica – Eostegana – Erima – Gitona – Hirtodrosophila – Hyalistata – Hypselothyrea – Idiomyia – Impatiophila – Jeannelopsis – Laccodrosophila – Leucophenga – Liodrosophila – Lissocephala – Lordiphosa – Luzonimyia – Marquesia – Mayagueza – Microdrosophila – Miomyia – Mulgravea – Mycodrosophila – Neorhinoleucophenga – Neotanygastrella – Palmomyia – Paracacoxenus – Paraleucophenga – Paraliodrosophila – Paramycodrosophila – Paraphortica – Pararhinoleucophenga – Parastegana – Phortica – Phorticella – Poliocephala – Protochymomyza – Pseudiastata – Pseudocacoxenus – Pseudostegana – Pyrgometopa – Rhinoleucophenga – Samoaia – ScaptodrosophilaScaptomyza – Soederbomia – Sphaerogastrella – Stegana – Styloptera – Tambourella – Trachyleucophenga – Zaprionus – Zapriothrica – Zaropunis – Zygothrica


Drosophilidae Rondani, 1856
Primary references

Rondani, C. 1856. Dipterologiae Italicae prodromus. Vol. 1. Genera Italica ordinis dipterorum ordinatum disposita et distinct et in familias et stirpes aggregate. Parma, 228 pp.

Additional references

Bächli, G. & Vilela, C.R. 2019. The Drosophilidae (Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark: replacing three misprinted plates. Alpine Entomology, 3: 137–140. DOI: 10.3897/alpento.3.34518 Reference page.
Brake, I. & Bächli, G. 2008. Drosophilidae (Diptera). World Catalogue of Insects 9. Stenstrup: Apollo Books. 412 pp. ISBN 9788788757880. DOI: 10.1163/9789004261037 Paywall. Google Books. Reference page.
Cariou, M.-L. et al. 2008: Drosophilidae of Seychelles: biogeography, ecology and conservation status. Phelsuma, 16: 19–30. PDF
Linde, K. van der; Houle, D.; Spicer, G.S.; Steppan, S.J. 2010: A supermatrix-based molecular phylogeny of the family Drosophilidae. Genetics research, 92: 25–38. DOI: 10.1017/S001667231000008X
O'Connor, J.P. et al. 2007: A review of the Irish lesser fruit-flies (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Irish naturalists' journal, 28(12): 506–516. JSTOR
O'Grady, P.M.; Magnacca, K.N.; Lapoint, R.T. 2010: Taxonomic relationships within the endemic Hawaiian Drosophilidae (Insecta: Diptera). In: Evenhuis, N.L.; Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2008. Bishop Museum occasional papers, 108: 1–34. PDF

* Sidorenko, V.S.; Nakonechnaya, O.V. 2010: Order Diptera, family Drosophilidae. Arthropod fauna of the UAE, 3: 661–672. [not seen]

Tidon, R. & Almeida, J.M. de 2016. FAMILY DROSOPHILIDAE. In Wolff, M.I., Nihei, S.S. & Carvalho, C.J.B. de (eds.), Catalogue of Diptera of Colombia. Zootaxa 4122(1): 719–751. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4122.1.63. Reference page.
Yassin, A. 2013: Phylogenetic classification of the Drosophilidae Rondani (Diptera): the role of morphology in the postgenomic era. Systematic entomology 38(2): 349-364. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2012.00665.x Reference page.


Bächli G. TaxoDros: The Database on Taxonomy of Drosophilidae, v.1.03

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Taufliege
English: lesser fruit flies
suomi: Mahlakärpäset
italiano: Drosofilidi
日本語: ショウジョウバエ科
한국어: 초파리과
中文: 果蝇科

The Drosophilidae are a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, which includes species called fruit flies, although they are more accurately referred to as vinegar or pomace flies.[1] Another distantly related family of flies, Tephritidae, are true fruit flies because they are frugivorous, and include apple maggot flies and many pests. The best known species of the Drosophilidae is Drosophila melanogaster, within the genus Drosophila, also called the "fruit fly." Drosophila melanogaster is used extensively for studies concerning genetics, development, physiology, ecology and behaviour. Many fundamental biological mechanisms were discovered first in D. melanogaster.[2] The fruit fly is mostly composed of post-mitotic cells, has a very short lifespan, and shows gradual aging. As in other species, temperature influences the life history of the animal. Several genes have been identified that can be manipulated to extend the lifespan of these insects. Additionally, Drosophila subobscura, also within the genus Drosophila, has been reputed as a model organism for evolutionary-biological studies,[3] along with D. sechellia for the evolution of host specialization on the toxic noni fruit[4] and Scaptomyza flava for the evolution of herbivory and specialist on toxic mustard leaves.[5]

Economic significance

Generally, drosophilids are considered to be nuisance flies rather than pests, since most species breed in rotting material. Zaprionus indianus is unusual among Drosophilidae species in being a serious, primary pest of at least one commercial fruit, figs in Brazil.[6] Another species, Drosophila suzukii, infests thin-skinned fruit such as raspberries and cherries and can be a serious agricultural pest.[7] The leaf mining Scaptomyza flava, which is nested in the genus Drosophila phylogenetically, is an obligate leaf miner of mustard plants, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana[5] and is a major pest of salad brassicas in New Zealand and an emerging pest of canola in the UK.[8] Drosophila repleta larvae inhabit drains and spread bacteria. Fruit flies in general are considered as a common vector in propagating acetic acid bacteria[9] in nature. This often ruins the alcohol fermentation process and can ruin beer or wine by turning it into vinegar. There are sinking traps available on the market for this nuisance, but one quick way to strongly limit the extent of it is to vacuum clean the flies both at rest and in their slow flight.

The diagnostic characteristics for Drosophilidae include the presence of an incomplete subcostal vein, two breaks in the costal vein, a small anal cell in the wing, convergent postocellar bristles; and usually three frontal bristles on each side of the head, one directed forward and the other two directed rearward. More extensive identification characteristics can be found in "Drosophila: A Guide to Species Identification and Use" by Therese A. Markow and Patrick O'Grady, (Academic Press, 2005) ISBN 0-12-473052-3 or "Drosophila: A Laboratory Handbook" by M. Ashburner, K. Golic, S. Hawley, (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2005).
Anti-parasitic behavior

Of their many defenses against parasites, when Drosophila melanogaster flies see female larval endoparasitoid wasps, they switch to laying their eggs in alcohol-laden food sources such as rotting fruit. Doing so protects the flies from becoming host to the larvae, as the wasps have a low alcohol tolerance. This oviposition behavior change only occurs upon seeing the female wasp larva and does not take place in the presence of the male wasp larva.[10]

There is evidence to support that pathogens living within certain flies are beneficial to the behavior and survival of the host. One such example of this is in the fly Scaptomyza flava, which carries the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in exchange for the pathogen damaging the anti-herbivore defenses of main food source for the fly, plants in the family Brassicaceae.[11]

The family contains more than 4,000 species classified under 75 genera. Recently, a comprehensive phylogenetic classification of the genera based on both molecular and morphological characters has been published.[12]

Subfamily Drosophilinae Rondani, 1856:
Tribe Colocasiomyini Okada, 1989:
Genus Baeodrosophila Wheeler & Takada, 1964
Genus Balara Bock, 1982
Genus Chymomyza Czerny, 1903
Genus Colocasiomyia de Meijere, 1914
Genus Lissocephala Malloch, 1929
Genus Neotanygastrella Duda, 1925
Genus Phorticella Duda, 1924
Genus Scaptodrosophila Duda, 1923
Genus Protochymomyza Grimaldi, 1987
Tribe Drosophilini Okada, 1989:
Genus Arengomyia Yafuso & Toda, 2008
Genus Bialba Bock, 1989
Genus Calodrosophila Wheeler & Takada, 1964
Genus Celidosoma Hardy, 1965
Genus Collessia Bock, 1982
Genus Dettopsomyia Lamb, 1914
Genus Dichaetophora Duda, 1940
Genus Dicladochaeta Malloch, 1932
Genus Drosophila Fallén, 1823
Genus Hirtodrosophila Duda, 1923
Genus Hypselothyrea Okada, 1956
Genus Idiomyia Grimshaw, 1901 (Hawaiian Drosophila)
Genus Jeannelopsis Séguy, 1938
Genus Laccodrosophila Duda, 1927
Genus Liodrosophila Duda, 1922
Genus Lordiphosa Basden, 1961
Genus Microdrosophila Malloch, 1921
Genus Miomyia Grimaldi, 1987
Genus Mulgravea Bock, 1982
Genus Mycodrosophila Oldenberg, 1914
Genus Palmomyia Grimaldi, 2003
Genus Paraliodrosophila Duda, 1925
Genus Paramycodrosophila Duda, 1924
Genus Poliocephala Bock, 1989
Genus Samoaia Malloch, 1934
Genus Scaptomyza Hardy, 1849
Genus Sphaerogastrella Duda, 1922
Genus Styloptera Duda, 1924
Genus Tambourella Wheeler, 1957
Genus Zaprionus Coquillett, 1902
Genus Zaropunis Tsacas, 1990
Genus Zapriothrica Wheeler, 1956
Genus Zygothrica Wiedemann, 1830
Incertae sedis:
Genus Marquesia Malloch, 1932
Subfamily Steganinae Hendel, 1917:
Tribe Gitonini Grimaldi, 1990:
Genus Allopygaea Tsacas, 2000
Genus Acletoxenus Frauenfeld, 1868
Genus Amiota Loew, 1862
Genus Apenthecia Tsacas, 1983
Genus Apsiphortica Okada, 1971
Genus Cacoxenus Loew, 1858
Genus Crincosia Bock, 1982
Genus Electrophortica Hennig, 1965
Genus Erima Kertész, 1899
Genus Gitona Meigen, 1830
Genus Hyalistata Wheeler, 1960
Genus Luzonimyia Malloch, 1926
Genus Mayagueza Wheeler, 1960
Genus Paracacoxenus Hardy & Wheeler, 1960
Genus Paraleucophenga Hendel, 1914
Genus Paraphortica Duda, 1934
Genus Phortica Schiner, 1862
Genus Pseudiastata Coquillett, 1901
Genus Pseudocacoxenus Duda, 1925
Genus Rhinoleucophenga Hendel, 1917
Genus Soederbomia Hendel, 1938
Genus Trachyleucophenga Hendel, 1917
Tribe Steganini Okada, 1989:
Genus Eostegana Hendel, 1913
Genus Leucophenga Mik, 1866
Genus Pararhinoleucophenga Duda, 1924
Genus Parastegana Okada, 1971
Genus Pseudostegana Okada, 1978
Genus Stegana Meigen, 1830
Incertae sedis:
Genus Neorhinoleucophenga Duda, 1924
Genus Pyrgometopa Kertész, 1901


Markow, Ann Therese (2006). Drosophila : a guide to species identification and use. Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-045409-7. OCLC 74908130.
Mohr, Stephanie Elizabeth (2018). First in fly: Drosophila research and biological discovery. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-97101-1. OCLC 1034915732.
Krimbas, C.B. & Loukas,M.(1980) Inversion Polymorphism of Drosophila subobscura Evol.Biol.12,163-234.
Jones, Corbin D., "The genetics of adaptation in Drosophila sechellia", Georgia Genetics Review III, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp. 137–145, retrieved 2021-12-18
Whiteman, Noah K.; Groen, Simon C.; Chevasco, Daniela; Bear, Ashley; Beckwith, Noor; Gregory, T. Ryan; Denoux, Carine; Mammarella, Nicole; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Pierce, Naomi E. (2010-11-13). "Mining the plant-herbivore interface with a leafmining Drosophila of Arabidopsis". Molecular Ecology. 20 (5): 995–1014. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294x.2010.04901.x. ISSN 0962-1083. PMC 3062943.
"Pest Alerts - Zaprionus indianus Gupta, DPI". Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
Drosophila suzukii Center of Invasive Species Research
Martin, N. A. (January 2004). "History of an invader,Scaptomyza flava(Fallen, 1823) (Diptera: Drosophilidae)". New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 31 (1): 27–32. doi:10.1080/03014223.2004.9518356. ISSN 0301-4223.
Vinegars of the World. Chapter 5. ISBN 978-88-470-0865-6
Kacsoh BZ; Lynch ZR; Mortimer NT; Schlenke TA (Feb 2013). "fruit flies medicate offspring after seeing parasites". Science. 339 (6122): 947–950. Bibcode:2013Sci...339..947K. doi:10.1126/science.1229625. PMC 3760715. PMID 23430653.
Groen, Simon C.; Humphrey, Parris T.; Chevasco, Daniela; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Pierce, Naomi E.; Whiteman, Noah K. (January 2016). "Pseudomonas syringae enhances herbivory by suppressing the reactive oxygen burst in Arabidopsis". Journal of Insect Physiology. 84: 90–102. doi:10.1016/j.jinsphys.2015.07.011. ISSN 1879-1611. PMC 4721946. PMID 26205072.
Yassin, Amir (2013). "Phylogenetic classification of the Drosophilidae Rondani (Diptera): The role of morphology in the postgenomic era". Systematic Entomology. 38 (2): 349–364. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2012.00665.x.

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