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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Superfamilia: Gelechioidea
Familiae (16, per Heikkilä et al., 2014):

Familiae, status to be confirmed: per Heikkilä et al., 2011.

Familiae, status to be confirmed: per van Nieukerken et al., 2011.
Coelopoetidae – Epimarptidae – Peleopodidae – Schistonoeidae – Syringopaidae

Gelechioidea Stainton, 1854.

Bucheli, S.R. 2009: Annotated review and discussion of phylogenetically important characters for families and subfamilies of Gelechioidea (Insecta: Lepidoptera). Zootaxa 2261: 1–22. Abstract & excerpt Reference page.
Heikkilä, M., Mutanen, M., Kekkonen, M. & Kaila, L. 2014. Morphology reinforces proposed molecular phylogenetic affinities: a revised classification for Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera). Cladistics 30(6): 563–589. DOI: 10.1111/cla.12064 Reference page.
Kaila, L. 2004: Phylogeny of the superfamily Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia): an exemplar approach. Cladistics 20(4): 303–340. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2004.00027.x Reference page.
Kaila, L.; Mutanen, M.; Nyman, T. 2011: Phylogeny of the mega-diverse Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera): adaptations and determinants of success. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 61(3): 801–809. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2011.08.016 Reference page.
van Nieukerken, E.J., Kaila, L., Kitching, I.J., Kristensen, N.P., Lees, D.C., Minet, J., Mitter, C., Mutanen, M., Regier, J.C., Simonsen, T.J., Wahlberg, N., Yen, S-H., Zahiri, R., Adamski, D., Baixeras, J., Bartsch, D., Bengtsson, B.A., Brown, J.W., Bucheli, S.R., Davis, D.R., de Prins, J., de Prins, W., Epstein, M.C., Gentili-Poole, P., Gielis, C., Hättenschwiler, P., Hausmann, A., Holloway, J.D., Kallies, A., Karsholt, O., Kawahara, A.Y., Koster, S., Kozlov, M.V., Lafontaine, J.D., Lamas, G., Landry, J-F., Lee, S., Nuss, M., Park, K-T., Penz, C.M., Rota, J., Schintlmeister, A., Schmidt, B.C., Sohn, J-C., Solis, M.A., Tarmann, G.M., Warren, A.D., Weller, S., Yaklovlev, R.V., Zolotuhin, V.V. & Zwick, A. 2011. Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758. Pp 212–221 In:
Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) 2011. Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 1–237. Open access. Reference page PDF. Reference page.
Wang, Q.Y. & Li, H.H. 2020. Phylogeny of the superfamily Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera: Obtectomera), with an exploratory application on geometric morphometrics. Zoologica Scripta 49(3): 307–328. DOI: 10.1111/zsc.12407. Reference page.

Vernacular names
中文: 麦蛾总科

Gelechioidea (from the type genus Gelechia, "keeping to the ground") is the superfamily of moths that contains the case-bearers, twirler moths, and relatives, also simply called curved-horn moths or gelechioid moths. It is a large and poorly understood '"micromoth" superfamily, constituting one of the basal lineages of the Ditrysia.[1]

As of the 1990s, this superfamily was composed of about 1,425 genera and 16,250 species. It was estimated that only 25% of the species diversity of Gelechioidea had been described.[2] If this estimate is accurate, Gelechioidea will be one of the largest superfamilies of Lepidoptera.[1]

The name "curved-horn moths" refers to one of the few conspicuous features found in (almost) all Gelechioidea, and, at least in the more extreme developments, unique to them: the labial palps are well-developed (though not thickened), and form more or less gently curved protrusions whose end has a drawn-out, pointed tip. Their proboscis is generally well-developed, allowing for long-lived imagines (adults); the proximal part of the proboscis is scaly. Otherwise, the Gelechioidea vary extensively in habitus; most have small hind-wings with long, hairy fringes, though these are not easily seen in the living animal as they are tucked under the fore-wings at rest. The body is usually quite compressed, either dorsoventrally or laterally.[3]

The phylogeny and classification of the Gelechioidea remains a subject of considerable dispute. For example, the Elachistidae were at one time used as a sort of "wastebin taxon" to unite as subfamilies a variety of plesiomorphic members of this superfamily, which do not actually seem to form a monophyletic group. Many of these have now been moved to the Oecophoridae, but others are almost certainly likely families in their own right, while additional ones may well be so.[4]

In 2011 the superfamily was divided into 21 families, based mainly on morphological studies, with adjustments made for some molecular studies. The number of genera and an estimate of the species number are given in parentheses.[5]

Autostichidae Le Marchand, 1947 (72 genera, 638 species) – includes Deocloninae, Glyphidocerinae, Holcopogoninae, Symmocinae and Metachandini, which have sometimes been treated as families.
Batrachedridae Heinemann & Wocke, 1876 (10 genera, 99 species)
Blastobasidae Meyrick, 1894 (24 genera, 377 species) – previously considered a subfamily of Coleophoridae.
Chimabachidae Heinemann, 1870 (2 genera, 6 species)
Coelopoetidae Hodges, 1978 (1 genus, 3 species)
Coleophoridae Bruand, 1850 (case-bearers, case moths; 5 genera, 1,386 species)
Cosmopterigidae Heinemann & Wocke, 1876 (cosmet moths; 135 genera, 1,792 species)
Elachistidae Bruand, 1850 (grass-miner moths; 161 genera, 3,201 species) – includes Agonoxeninae (palm moths) and Ethmiinae, which have sometimes been treated as families.
Epimarptidae Meyrick, 1914 (1 genus, 4 species) – previously considered a subfamily of Batrachedridae.
Gelechiidae Stainton, 1854 (twirler moths; 500 genera, 4,700 species) – including Deocloninae, which has previously been treated as a family.
Lecithoceridae Le Marchand, 1947 (long-horned moths; 100 genera, 1,200 species)
Lypusidae Herrich-Schäffer, 1857 (3 genera, 21 species)
Momphidae Herrich-Schäffer, 1857 (mompha moths; 6 genera, 115 species) – previously considered a subfamily of Coleophoridae.
Oecophoridae Bruand, 1850 (concealer moths; 313 genera, 3,308 species)
Peleopodidae Hodges, 1974 (7 genera, 28 species)
Pterolonchidae Meyrick, 1918 (2 genera, 8 species) – previously considered a subfamily of Coleophoridae.
Schistonoeidae Hodges, 1998 (scavenger moth; 1 genus, 1 species)
Scythrididae Rebel, 1901 (flower moths; 30 genera, 669 species) – previously considered a subfamily of Xyloryctidae.
Stathmopodidae Janse, 1917 (44 genera, 408 species) – previously considered a subfamily of Oecophoridae.
Syringopaidae Hodges, 1998 (1 genus, 1 species) – previously considered a subfamily of Deoclonidae.
Xyloryctidae Meyrick, 1890 (60 genera, 524 species)

However, a later phylogenetic analysis of the Gelechioidea, using a morphological and molecular dataset, proposed a revision into 16 families, with the status of two further families, Schistonoeidae and Epimarptidae, unclear.[6]

Autostichidae Le Marchand, 1947
Autostichinae Le Marchand, 1947
Deocloninae Hodges, 1999
Glyphidocerinae Hodges, 1999
Holcopogoninae Gozmány, 1967
Oegoconiinae Leraut, 1992
Symmocinae Gozmány, 1957
Lecithoceridae Le Marchand, 1947
Ceuthomadarinae Gozmány, 1978
Lecithocerinae Le Marchand, 1947
Torodorinae Gozmány, 1978
Xyloryctidae Meyrick, 1890
Oecophoridae Bruand, 1850
Oecophorinae Bruand, 1850
Pleurotinae Toll, 1956
Depressariidae Meyrick, 1883
Acriinae Kuznetsov and Stekolnikov, 1984
Aeolanthinae Kuznetsov and Stekolnikov, 1984
Cryptolechiinae Meyrick, 1883
Depressariinae Meyrick, 1883
Ethmiinae Busck, 1909
Hypercalliinae Leraut, 1993
Hypertrophinae Fletcher, 1929
Oditinae Lvovsky, 1996
Peleopodinae Hodges, 1974
Stenomatinae Meyrick, 1906
Cosmopterigidae Heinemann in Heinemann & Wocke, 1876
Chrysopeleiinae Mosher, 1916
Antequerinae Hodges, 1978
Cosmopteriginae Heinemann and Wocke, 1876
Scaeosophinae Meyrick, 1922

Gelechiidae Stainton, 1854
Physoptilinae Meyrick, 1914
Anacampsinae Bruand, 1850
Dichomeridinae Hampson, 1918
Apatetrinae Meyrick, 1947
Thiotrichinae Karsholt et al., 2013
Anomologinae Meyrick, 1926
Gelechiinae Stainton, 1854
Elachistidae Bruand, 1850 – substantially reduced with movement of five subfamilies to Depressariidae.
Elachistinae Bruand, 1850
Agonoxeninae Meyrick, 1926
Parametriotinae Capuse, 1971
Coleophoridae Bruand, 1850
Batrachedridae Heinemann & Wocke, 1876
Scythrididae Rebel, 1901
Blastobasidae Meyrick, 1894
Blastobasinae Meyrick, 1894
Holcocerinae Adamski, 1989
Stathmopodidae Meyrick, 1913
Momphidae Herrich-Schäffer, 1857
Pterolonchidae Meyrick, 1918
Pterolonchinae Meyrick, 1918
Coelopoetinae Hodges, 1978
Syringopainae Hodges, 1999
Lypusidae Herrich-Schäffer, 1857
Lypusinae Herrich-Schäffer, 1857
Chimabachinae Heinemann, 1870 stat. n.


Robinson et al. (1994), Hodges (1999), O'Toole (2002)
Hodges (1999)
Robinson et al. (1994)
Hodges (1999), O'Toole (2002), ToL (2009), Wikispecies (2009-OCT-12)
van Nieukerken et al, 2011

Heikkilä et al, 2014


Data related to Gelechioidea at Wikispecies See also associated Talk page for comparison of some approaches to gelechioid systematics and taxonomy.

Hodges, R.W. (1999): The Gelechioidea. In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.): Handbuch der Zoologie/Handbook of Zoology (Volume IV – Arthropoda: Insecta. Part 35: Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies 1): 131–158. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & New York. ISBN 3-11-015704-7
O'Toole, Christopher (ed.) (2002): Firefly Encyclopedia of Insects and Spiders. ISBN 1-55297-612-2
Robinson, G.S.; Tuck, K.R.; Shaffer, M. and Cook, K. (1994): The smaller moths of South-East Asia. Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur.
Tree of Life Web Project (ToL) (2009): Gelechioidea. Version of 2009-APR-02. Retrieved 2010-APR-22.
van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Kaila, Lauri; Kitching, Ian J.; Kristensen, Niels P.; Lees, David C.; Minet, Joël; Mitter, Charles; Mutanen, Marko; Regier, Jerome C.; Simonsen, Thomas J.; Wahlberg, Niklas; Yen, Shen-Horn; Zahiri, Reza; Adamski, David; Baixeras, Joaquin; Bartsch, Daniel; Bengtsson, Bengt Å.; Brown, John W.; Bucheli, Sibyl Rae; Davis, Donald R.; De Prins, Jurate; De Prins, Willy; Epstein, Marc E.; Gentili-Poole, Patricia; Gielis, Cees; Hättenschwiler, Peter; Hausmann, Axel; Holloway, Jeremy D.; Kallies, Axel; Karsholt, Ole; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Koster, Sjaak (J.C.); Kozlov, Mikhail V.; Lafontaine, J. Donald; Lamas, Gerardo; Landry, Jean-François; Lee, Sangmi; Nuss, Matthias; Park, Kyu-Tek; Penz, Carla; Rota, Jadranka; Schintlmeister, Alexander; Schmidt, B. Christian; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Solis, M. Alma; Tarmann, Gerhard M.; Warren, Andrew D.; Weller, Susan; Yakovlev, Roman V.; Zolotuhin, Vadim V.; Zwick, Andreas (23 December 2011). Zhang, Zhi-Qiang (ed.). "Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758" (PDF). Zootaxa. Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. 3148: 212–221.
Heikkilä, Maria; Mutanen, Marko; Kekkonen, Mari; Kaila, Lauri (2014). "Morphology reinforces proposed molecular phylogenetic affinities: a revised classification for Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera)". Cladistics. 30 (6): 563–589. doi:10.1111/cla.12064. ISSN 0748-3007. S2CID 84696495.

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