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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Scarabaeiformia
Superfamilia: Scarabaeoidea

Familia: Glaresidae
Genus: Glaresis
Species (63): G. alfierii – G. arabica – G. arenata – G. beckeri – G. canadensis – G. carthagensis – G. cartwrighti – G. ceballosi – G. celiae – G. clypeata – G. confusa – G. contrerasi – G. dakotensis – G. desperata – G. ecostata – G. exasperata – G. foveolata – G. franzi – G. freyi – G. fritzi – G. frustrata – G. gineri – G. gordoni – G. handlirschi – G. hespericula – G. hispana – G. holmi – G. holzschuhi – G. howdeni – G. impressicollis – G. inducta – G. kocheri – G. koenigsbaueri – G. lomii – G. longisternum – G. mandibularis – G. maroccana – G. mauritanica – G. medialis – G. mendica – G. methneri – G. minuta – G. mondacai – G. namibensis – G. obscura – G. ordosensis – G. orientalis – G. oxiana – G. pardoalcaidei – G. pardoi – G. penrithae – G. phoenicis – G. porrecta – G. quedenfeldti – G. rufa – G. smithi – G. texana – G. thiniensis – G. tripolitana – G. villiersi – G. walzlae – G. zarudniana – G. zvirgzdinsi

[source: Catalogue of Life: 2013 Annual Checklist]

Add (19 + 1†): G. australis – G. bajaensis – G. bautista – G. caenulenta – G. california – G. costaricensis – G. costata – G. dentata – G. donaldi – G. falli – G. imitator – G. limbata – G. montenegro – G. paramendica – G. subulosa – G. tumida – G. warneri – G. yanegai – G. zacateca – †G. orthochilus

Glaresis Erichson, 1848

Template:Erichson, 1848

Bai, M.; Krell, F.T.; Ren, D.; Yang, X. 2010: A new, well-preserved species of Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) from the Jehol Biota of China. Acta geologica sinica - English edition, 84(4): 676–679. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-6724.2010.00229.x Full article (PDF) Reference page.
Gordon, R.D.; Hanley, G.A. 2014: Systematic revision of American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea). Insecta mundi, (0333) Full article (PDF) Reference page.
Král, D., Hrůzová, L., Lu, Y-Y. & Bai, M. 2017. First records of Glaresidae (Coleoptera) in China, with the description of a new species from Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi. Zootaxa 4306(1): 145–150. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4306.1.11. Reference page.
Král, D. & Hrůzová, L. 2018. Glaresis hespericula sp. n. from the Cape Verde Islands (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Glaresidae). ZooKeys 792: 91–97. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.792.28870 Reference page.
Paulsen, M.J. 2016. Two new species of South American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea). Zootaxa 4154(5): 595–600. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4154.5.9. Reference page.
Verdú, J.R.; Galante, E. 2001: A new species of Glaresis Erichson from the Iberian Peninsula (Scarabaeoidea: Glaresidae). Coleopterists bulletin 55(3): 272-278. DOI: 10.1649/0010-065X(2001)055[0272:ANSOGE]2.0.CO;2 JSTOR Reference page.
Warner, W.B. 1995: Two new Glaresis from the desert southwest, with notes on the identity of Glaris mendica Horn (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Glaresinae). Insecta mundi 9: 267-271. Full article (PDF) Reference page.

Glaresis is a genus of beetles, sometimes called "enigmatic scarab beetles", in its own family, the Glaresidae. It is closely related to, and was formerly included in, the family Scarabaeidae. Although its members occur in arid and sandy areas worldwide (except Australia), only the nocturnal adults have ever been collected (typically at lights), and both the larvae and biology of Glaresis are as yet unknown. Due to their narrow habitat associations, a great number of these species occur in extremely limited geographic areas, and are accordingly imperiled by habitat destruction.

These beetles are small, 2.5–6 mm long, and have the stocky appearance typical of fossorial scarabs, with short, heavy, spurred legs. Color ranges from tan to dark brown, and the back is covered with short setae.

Efforts to raise glaresids in the laboratory were undertaken in the 1980s by C. H. Scholtz and others, but were unsuccessful.

Glaresis was originally classified with Trogidae (originally a subfamily within Scarabaeidae), and has many characteristics of "primitive" scarabaeoids, but no affinities to any of the other primitive groups; recent work suggests that they may in fact belong in Trogidae. Scholtz argued that Glaresis is the most primitive type of scarabaeoid, but more recent research indicates that the Pleocomidae hold this position. The species in North, Central, and South America have been revised by Robert Gordon and Guy Hanley, January 2014, in the journal Insecta Mundi.[1]


Glaresis alfierii
Glaresis arenata
Glaresis beckeri
Glaresis canadensis
Glaresis carthagensis
Glaresis cartwrighti
Glaresis ceballosi
Glaresis celiae
Glaresis clypeata
Glaresis confusa
Glaresis contrerasi
Glaresis dakotensis
Glaresis desperata
Glaresis ecostata
Glaresis exasperata
Glaresis foveolata
Glaresis freyi
Glaresis fritzi
Glaresis frustrata
Glaresis gineri
Glaresis gordoni
Glaresis handlirschi
Glaresis hispana
Glaresis holmi
Glaresis howdeni
Glaresis impressicollis
Glaresis inducta
Glaresis japanensis
Glaresis kocheri
Glaresis koenigsbaueri
Glaresis longisternum
Glaresis lomii
Glaresis mandibularis
Glaresis maroccana
Glaresis mauritanica
Glaresis medialis
Glaresis mendica
Glaresis methneri
Glaresis minuta
Glaresis namibensis
Glaresis penrithae
Glaresis oxiana
Glaresis pardoi
Glaresis pardoalcaidei
Glaresis phoenicis
Glaresis porrecta
Glaresis quedenfeldti
Glaresis rufa
Glaresis texana
Glaresis thiniensis
Glaresis tripolitana
Glaresis villiersi
Glaresis walzlae
Glaresis zarudniana
Glaresis zvirgzdinsi

Fossil species

†Glaresis burmitica Cai and Huang 2018[2] Burmese amber, Myanmar, Cenomanian
†Glaresis orthochilus Bai et al. 2010[3] Yixian Formation, China, Aptian
†Glaresis tridentata Bai et al. 2014[4] Yixian Formation, China, Aptian

"Glaresis" cretacea Nikolajev 2007 from the Aptian aged Zaza Formation in Russia is considered questionable, with Cai and Huang 2018 considering it to have no diagnostic characters of the family.[2]

R.D. Gordon and G.A. Hanley (2014). "Systematic revision of American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea)". Insecta Mundi. 0333: 1–91.
Cai, Chenyang; Huang, Diying (October 2018). "First amber inclusion of a glaresid beetle from the Upper Cretaceous of Myanmar (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea)". Cretaceous Research. 90: 115–119. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.04.022.
M. Bai, F. T. Krell, D. Ren and X. Yang. 2010. A new, well-preserved species of Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) from the Jehol Biota of China. Acta Geologica Sinica 84(4):676-679

M. Bai, R. G. Beutel, and D. Ren. 2014. Description of a new species of Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) from the Jehol Biota of China with a geometric morphometric evaluation. Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny 72:223-236

Mary Liz Jameson, "Glaresidae", in Ross H. Arnett, Jr. and Michael C. Thomas, American Beetles (CRC Press, 2001), vol. 2

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