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Junonia evarete evarete MHNT dos

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Nymphalidae
Subfamilia: Nymphalinae
Tribus: Junoniini
Genus: Junonia
Species: Junonia evarete
Subspecies: J. e. dougueti – J. e. evarete – J. e. flirtea – J. e. fuscescens – J. e. huacapistana – J. e. lima – J. e. occidentalis

Junonia evarete (Cramer, 1779)

Papilio evarete Cramer, 1779
Papilio lavinia Cramer, [1775] (preocc. Papilio lavinia Fabricius, 1775
Papilio cortes Herbst, 1796; in Jablonsky (repl. name
Papilio esra Fabricius, 1798
Junonia divaricata C. Felder & R. Felder, [1867]
Junonia lavinia arenosa Forbes, [1929]
Junonia lavina Comstock, 1942


Brévignon, C. 2004. Description de deux nouvelles sous-espèces guadeloupéennes du genre Junonia Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Nymphalinae). Lambillionea 104(1): 72–80. Reference page.
Cong, Q., Zhang, J., Shen, J.H., Cao, X.L, Brévignon, C. & Grishin, N.V. 2020. Speciation in North American Junonia from a genomic perspective. Systematic Entomology 45(4): 803–837. DOI: 10.1111/syen.12428 Reference page.
Lamas, G. 2004. (ed.) Checklist: Part 4A. Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea. In Heppner, J.B. (ed.) Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Vol.5A, Pt.4A. Assn. for Tropical Lepidoptera/Scientific Publishers, Gainesville. 439pp. Reference page.
Munroe, E.G., 1951: The genus Junonia in the West Indies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). American Museum Novitates 1498: 1–16. Full article: [1].

Junonia evarete (Cramer, 1779), the Tropical Buckeye or South American Tropical Buckeye, is a South American butterfly of the Nymphalids (Nymphalidae) family.[1] It has characteristic eye spots on the wings, which have a wingspan between 4.5 and 6.5 cm. This butterfly is easily confused with Junonia genoveva, the mangrove buckeye. Not only have the common names mangrove and tropical buckeye been confused, but the butterflies themselves have been sometimes misidentified in past literature, because the two species have many variations, subspecies and seasonal forms, which makes it difficult to identify or differentiate.[2][3] Phylogenetic studies demonstrate the separation of evarete and genoveva,[4] but evidence suggests that subspecies and perhaps additional species await their descriptions within this group.[5][6][7]

1 Ecology
2 Systematics
3 References
4 External links


The Tropical Buckeye is found in tropical and subtropical South America.[1][5][8] It inhabits tropical plains, shrub and scrub areas, islands, primary and secondary forests, and urbanized and suburbanized habitats. Adults are nectarivores. Males generally stay in the vegetation or on the ground waiting for receptive females, even all day long. The female deposits her eggs, individually, under the leaves of the plants.[9] The larvae feed on the leaves, preferably on the plants Mock Vervain (Glandularia carolinensis), Cayenne snakeweed (Stachytarpheta cayennensis) and White Mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa).[10][11] With a very fast and low flight, the tropical buckeye prefers open and sunny fields.

Junonia nigrosuffusa and Junonia zonalis were formerly subspecies of Junonia evarete, but were elevated to the species rank as a result of phylogenetic and DNA research. As a result, the geographic range of Junonia evarete is limited primarily to South America.[1]

Cong, Qian; Zhang, Jing; Shen, Jinhui; Cao, Xiaolong; et al. (2020). "Speciation in North American Junonia from a genomic perspective". Systematic Entomology. 45 (4). doi:10.1111/syen.12428.
R. R. Askew & P. A. van B. Stafford (2008). Butterflies of the Cayman Islands. Apollo Books. p. 46–51. ISBN 9788788757859.
Calhoun, John C. (2010). "The Identities of Papilio evarete Cramer and Papilio genoveva Cramer (Nymphalidae), with Notes on the Occurrence of Junonia evarete in Florida" (PDF). News of the Lepidopterists' Society. 52 (2): 47–51.
Kodandaramaiah, U.; Wahlberg, N. (2007). "Out-of-Africa origin and dispersal-mediated diversification of the butterfly genus Junonia (Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae)". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 20 (8): 2181–91. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2007.01425.x. PMID 17887973.
Neild, A. F. E. (2008). The butterflies of Venezuela. Part 2: Nymphalidae II (Acraeinae, Libytheinae, Nymphalinae, Ithomiinae, Morphinae). A comprehensive guide to the identification of adult Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, and Pieridae. Meridian Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9527657-1-4.
Brévignon, C. (2004). Description de deux nouvelles sous-espèces guadeloupéennes du genre Junonia Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Nymphalinae) (in French). Vol. 104. Belgium: Lambillionea. p. 72–80.
Lamas, G.; Callaghan, Curtis J. (2004). "Checklist: Part 4A: Hesperioidea – Papilionoidea". In Heppner, J. B. (ed.). Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Vol. 5A. Gainesville, Florida: Scientific Publishers Association for Tropical Lepidoptera.
Marchiori, M. O.; Romanowski, H. P. (2006). "Borboletas (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea e Hesperioidea) do Parque Estadual do Espinilho e entorno, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil" (PDF). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia. 23 (4): 1029–1037. doi:10.1590/S0101-81752006000400007.
Martins, D. S.; Romanowski, H. P. (2014). "Variação fenotípica de Junonia evarete (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae)" (PDF). XXVI Salão de Iniciação Científica UFRGS.
Warren, A. D.; Davis, K. J.; Stangeland, E. M.; Pelham, J. P.; Grishin, N. V. (2017). "Illustrated Lists of American Butterflies (North and South America) 21-XI-2017".
Beccaloni, G. W.; Hall, S. K.; Viloria, A.; Robinson, G. S. (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Huésped de las Mariposas Neotropicales [Catalogue of the Hostplants of the Neotropical Butterflies].

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