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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Nymphalidae
Subfamilia: Satyrinae
Tribus: Satyrini
Subtribus: Satyrina
Genus: Oeneis
Species: O. actaeoides – O. aktashi – O. alberta – O. alpina – O. altaica – O. altacordillera – O. ammon – O. ammosovi – O. bore – O. brucei – O. buddha – O. calais – O. chryxus – O. diluta – O. elwesi – O. fulla – O. glacialis – O. hora – O. jutta – O. lederi – O. macounii – O. magna – O. melissa – O. mitrandir – O. mulla – O. nanna – O. nevadensis – O. norna – O. pansa – O. philipi – O. polixenes – O. sculda – O. tanana – O. tarpeja – O. taygete – O. temujin – O. uhleri – O. urda – O. valerata

Oeneis Hübner, [1819]

Type species: Papilio norna Thunberg, 1791.

Chionobas Boisduval, 1832: 182. Type species: Papilio aello Hübner, 1804; by subsequent designation by Blanchard, 1840: 458, pl.17, fig.3.
Chinobas; Möschler, 1863: 183, 213 (Incorrect subsequent spelling).
Chionabas; Doubleday, 1844: 31 (Incorrect subsequent spelling).
Protoeneis Gorbunov, 2001. Type species: Chionobas nanna Ménétries, 1859.


Belik A. G. & R.V. Yakovlev, 1998. Confirmed occurrence of Oeneis jutta in the Altai mountains (Russia) with description of a new subspecies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). Phegea 26(4): 131–139.
Churkin, S.V., 2003: A new species of Oeneis Hubner, 1819 (Lepidoptera, Satyridae) from South-West Mongolia. Helios 4: 120–131. Reference page.
Blanchard, C.É. 1840. Histoire naturelle des insectes : Orthoptères, Névroptères, Hémiptères, Hyménoptères, Lépidoptères et Diptères, 672 pp. P. Duménil (Paris). BHL Reference page.
Boisduval, J.B. 1832–1834. Icones historiques des Lépidoptères nouveaux ou peu connus. Collection, avec figures coloriées, des Papillons d'Europe nouvellement découverts; ouvrage formant le complément de tous les Auteurs iconographes. 1: Rhopalocères. Paris, Roret. 1: 1–251, pls 1–47. web Reference page.
Churkin, S.V., New taxa of butterflies from Transbaikalia, Russia (Lepidoptera: Satyridae; Nymphalidae). Atalanta 29 (1-4): 107–124.
Doubleday, E. 1844. List of the specimens of lepidopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum, Part 1, London. BHL Reference page.
Eitschberger, U.; Lukhtanov, V.A. 1994: Eine neue Unterart von Oeneis tarpeia Pallas, 1771 aus Buratien im Transbaikal (Lepidoptera, Satyridae). Atalanta 25 (1-2): 163–166.
Holland, R., 2010: A new subspecies of Oeneis chryxus (Nymphalidae: Satyrninae) from South Central New Mexico. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 64 (3): 161–165.
Korb, S.K. & Bolshakov, L.V. 2011. A catalogue of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoformes) of the former USSR. Second edition, reformatted and updated. Eversmannia, Supplement 2. Abstract. Reference page.
Lukhtanov, U. & V.A. Eitschberger, 2000: Butterflies of the world Part 11 Nymphalidae V: Oeneis.
Matsumura, S., 1927: About a new Subspecies of Oeneis. Insecta Matsumurana 1 (3): 128–129. Full article: [1].
Möschler 1863. Die zur Fauna von Europa gezählten Arten der Gattung Chionobas. Wiener entomologische Monatschrift, 7(6), 169–193. BHL Reference page.
Troubridge, J.T. & Parshall, D.K. 1988: A review of the Oeneis polixenes (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae) complex in North America. The Canadian Entomologist 120(7): 679-696. Reference page.
Matsumura, S., 1927: A List of Butterflies of Corea, with Descriptions of new Species, Subspecies and Aberrations. Insecta Matsumurana 1 (4): 159–170. Full article: [2].
Warren, A.D., Nakahara, S., Lukhtanov, V.A., Daly, K.M., Ferris, C.D., Grishin, N.V., Cesanek, M. & Pelham, J.P. 2016. A new species of Oeneis from Alaska, United States, with notes on the Oeneis chryxus complex (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 49: 1–20. ResearchGate Reference page.
Wyatt, C.W., 1965: Zwei neue Formen von holarktischen Tagfaltern. Zeitschrift der Wiener Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 50: 69- 71. Full article: [3].
Yakovlev, R.V., 2011: New taxa of Rhopalocera from Siberia and Kazakhstan (Lepidoptera: Satyridae: Nymphalidae). Atalanta 42 (1-4): 225–230.

Oeneis (the Arctics or graylings) is a butterfly genus of the Satyrinae. All but one of its members are Arctic, sub-Arctic or high-altitude alpine in distribution. Some of the members of the genus are among the butterflies that can get along in the harshest climates of any butterflies. Four species in Europe, more are found in Arctic Russia, Siberia, Mongolia, Arctic North America and the Rocky Mountains. Curiously, there are no observations from Greenland. The development of most species takes two years.

Listed alphabetically within groups:[1]

The jutta species group:

Oeneis fulla (Eversmann, 1851)
Oeneis jutta (Hübner, 1805–1806) – Baltic grayling or Jutta Arctic
Oeneis magna (Graeser, 1888)
Oeneis melissa (Fabricius, 1775) – Melissa Arctic
Oeneis tunga (Staudinger, 1894)

The norna species group:

Oeneis actaeoides (Lukhtanov, 1989)
Oeneis glacialis (Moll, 1785) – Alpine grayling
Oeneis norna (Thunberg, 1791) – Norse grayling
Oeneis philipi (Troubridge, 1988)
Oeneis polixenes (Fabricius, 1775) – Polixenes Arctic
Oeneis rosovi (Kurentzov 1960) – Philip's Arctic[2]

The alpina species group:

Oeneis alpina (Kurentzov, 1970) – sentinel Arctic[3]

The hora species group:

Oeneis aktashi (Lukhtanov, 1984)
Oeneis ammosovi (Dubatov & Korshunov, 1988)
Oeneis elwesi (Staudinger, 1901)
Oeneis hora (Grum-Grshimailo, 1888)
Oeneis mulla (Staudinger, 1881)

The bore species group:

Oeneis alberta (Elwes, 1893) – Alberta Arctic
Oeneis ammon (Elwes, 1899)
Oeneis bore (Schneider, 1792) – Arctic grayling or white-veined Arctic
Oeneis chryxus (Doubleday, 1849) – brown Arctic or chryxus Arctic
Oeneis ivallda (Mead, 1878) – California Arctic
Oeneis nevadensis (C. & R. Felder, 1866) – great Arctic
Oeneis macounii (Edwards, 1885) – Canada Arctic or Macoun's Arctic
Oeneis tanana (Warren & Nakahara 2016)

The tarpeja species group:

Oeneis diluta (Lukhtanov, 1994)
Oeneis lederi (Alphéraky, 1897)
Oeneis mongolica (Oberthür, 1876)
Oeneis sculda (Eversmann, 1851)
Oeneis tarpeja (Pallas, 1771)
Oeneis uhleri (Reakirt, 1866) – Uhler's Arctic
Oeneis urda (Eversmann, 1847)

The buddha species group:

Oeneis buddha (Grum-Grshimailo, 1891)
Oeneis oeno (Boisduval, 1832)


"Oeneis Hübner, [1819]" at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms
Philip's Arctic, Butterflies of Canada
Sentinel Arctic, Butterflies of Canada

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