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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Scarabaeiformia
Superfamilia: Scarabaeoidea

Familia: Scarabaeidae
Subfamilia: Scarabaeinae
Tribus: Phanaeini
Genera (12): Bolbites – Coprophanaeus – Dendropaemon – Diabroctis – Gromphas – Homalotarsus – Megatharsis – Oruscatus – OxysternonPhanaeus – Sulcophanaeus – Tetramereia


Phanaeini MacLeay, 1819

Macleay, W.S. 1819. Horae entomologicae: or essays on the annulose animals. Containing geneal observations on the geography, manners, and natural affinities of the Insects which compose the genus Scarabaeus of Linnaeus; to which are added a few incidental remarks on the genera Lucanus and Hister of the same author. With an appendix and plates. Vol. 1. Part 1. London: S. Bagster, xxx + [2] + 160 pp., 3 pls. BHL Reference page.
Gillett, C.P.D.T.; Gillett, M.P.T.; Gillett, J.E.D.T.; Vaz-de-Mello, F.Z. 2010: Diversity and distribution of the scarab beetle tribe Phanaeini in the northern states of the Brazilian Northeast (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). Insecta mundi, (0118 ): 1–19. PDF
Lizardo, V., Escobar, F. & Rojas-Soto, O. 2017. Diversity and distribution of Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in Mexico. Zootaxa 4358(2): 271–294. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4358.2.3. Reference page.
Puker, A.; Correa, C.M.A.; Korasaki, V. 2014: Deltochilini and Phanaeini dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in introduced and native ecosystems of Brazil. Journal of natural history, DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2014.908969 Reference page.

Phanaeini is a tribe of dung beetles in the family Scarabaeidae. There are about 12 genera and 200 described species in Phanaeini.[1][2][3]
Phanaeus tridens


These 12 genera belong to the tribe Phanaeini:[4]

Bolbites Harold, 1868
Coprophanaeus D'Olsoufieff, 1924
Dendropaemon Perty, 1830
Diabroctis Gistel, 1857
Gromphas Brullé, 1839
Homalotarsus Janssens, 1932
Megatharsis Waterhouse, 1891
Oruscatus Bates, 1870
Oxysternon Laporte de Castelnau, 1840
Phanaeus MacLeay, 1819 (rainbow scarabs)
Sulcophanaeus Olsoufieff, 1924


Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; et al. (2011). "Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)". ZooKeys (88): 1–972. doi:10.3897/zookeys.88.807. ISSN 1313-2989. PMC 3088472. PMID 21594053.
"Phanaeini Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
"Phanaeini Tribe Information". Retrieved 7 January 2019.

Philips, T; Edmonds, W; Scholtz, Clarke (2004). "A phylogenetic analysis of the New World tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae): Hypotheses on relationships and origins". Insect Systematics & Evolution. 35 (1): 43–63. doi:10.1163/187631204788964664.

Further reading

Arnett, R.H. Jr.; Thomas, M. C.; Skelley, P. E.; Frank, J. H., eds. (2002). American Beetles, Volume II: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0849309540.
LeConte, J.L. (1861). Classification of the Coleoptera of North America. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Vol. 3. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.38459. ISBN 0665100558.
Mathison, Blaine A.; Hardy, Martin; Bezdek, Aleš; Schoolmeesters, Paul (2001). "A Worldwide Checklist of the Tribes and Genera of Aegialiinae, Aphodiinae, Termitotroginae, Aulonocneminae, Scarabaeinae, and Coprinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Scarabaeidae)". Retrieved 7 January 2019.
Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z.; Edmonds, W.D.; Ocampo, Federico C.; Schoolmeesters, Paul (2011). "A multilingual key to the genera and subgenera of the subfamily Scarabaeinae of the New World (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. Magnolia Press. 2854. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2019.

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