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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Hymenopterida
Ordo: Hymenoptera
Subordo: Apocrita
Superfamilia: Vespoidea

Familia: Rhopalosomatidae
Genera: Liosphex – Olixon – Paniscomima – Rhopalosoma –
Paleogenera: †Cretolixon – †Eorhopalosoma – †Mesorhopalosoma – †Paleorhopalosoma – †Propalosoma

Rhopalosomatidae Ashmead, 1896

Berland, L. 1951. Note sur L’existence Madagascar de Rhopalosomidae (Hymenoptres Aculeates). Mémoires de l’Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Serie A. Biologie Animale 5: 295–303.
Bulbol, M.; Somavilla, A.; Fernandes, D.R.R.; Bartholomay, P.R. 2021: A New Species of Liosphex Townes, 1977 (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae) from the Amazon Forest and New Records for the Genus in Brazil. Neotropical Entomology 50(3): 444-452.
Dlussky, G.M. & Rasnitsyn, A.P. 1999. Two new aculeate hymenopterans (Vespida=Hymenoptera) from the Middle Eocene of United States. Paleontological Journal 33: 546–549.
Engel, M.S. 2008. The wasp family Rhopalosomatidae in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 81(3): 168–174.
Guidotti, A.E. 2007. A revision of the wasp genus Paniscomima (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae) and a proposal of phylogenetic relationships among species. Invertebrate Systematics 21: 297–309.
Gurney, A.B. 1953. Notes on the biology and immature stages of a cricket parasite of the genus Rhopalosoma. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 103: 19–34.
Lohrmann, V. 2011. A revision of the Paniscomima of the African Subregion with the description of two new species from Malawi and Tanzania (Hymenoptera, Rhopalosomatidae). Zoosystematics and Evolution 87(2): 371–378. Abstract: DOI: 10.1002/zoos.201100014
Lohrmann, V. & Engel, M.S. 2017. The wasp larva’s last supper: 100 million years of evolutionary stasis in the larval development of rhopalosomatid wasps (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae). Fossil Record 20: 239–244.
Lohrmann, V. & Ohl, M. 2007. The wasp genus Olixon Cameron in Madagascar: first record and description of two new species (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae). Zootaxa 1465: 39–46. [Abstract.
Lohrmann, V. & Ohl, M. 2010. World revision of the wasp genus Liosphex Townes, 1977 (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae). Zootaxa 2384: 1–43. Preview (PDF).
Lohrmann, V., Falin, Z.H., Bennett, D.J. & Engel, M.S. 2014. Recent findings of Olixon banksii in the Nearctic with notes on its biology (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 87(2): 258–260.
Lohrmann, V., Fox, M., Solis, M. & Krogmann, L. 2012. Systematic revision of the New World Olixon Cameron with descriptions of O. melinsula sp. n. and the hitherto unknown female of O. bicolor (Hymenoptera, Rhopalosomatidae). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 59(2): 259–275. Online. DOI: 10.1002/mmnd.201200022 Reference page.
Lohrmann, V., Ohl, M., Michalik, P., Pitts, J.P., Jeanneau, L. & Perrichot, V. 2019. Notes on rhopalosomatid wasps of Dominican and Mexican amber (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae) with a description of the first fossil species of Rhopalosoma Cresson, 1865. Fossil Record 22(1): 31–44. DOI: 10.5194/fr-22-31-2019 Open access Reference page.
Lohrmann, V., Zhang, Q., Michalik, P., Blaschke, J., Müller, P., Jeanneau, L. & Perrichot, V. 2020. †Cretolixon – a remarkable new genus of rhopalosomatid wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Rhopalosomatidae) from chemically tested, mid-Cretaceous Burmese (Kachin) amber supports the monophyly of Rhopalosomatinae. Fossil Record 23: 215–236. DOI: 10.5194/fr-23-215-2020 Open access Reference page.
Krogmann, L., Austin, A., & Naumann, I. 2009. Systematics and biogeography of Australian rhopalosomatid wasps (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae) with a global synopsis of the enigmatic genus Olixon Cameron. Systematic Entomology 34(2): 222–251. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2008.00460.x Reference page.
Madl, M. 2017. A catalogue of the family Rhopalosomatidae (Vespoidea) of the Malagasy subregion (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Linzer biologische Beiträge 49(1): 15–19. Full article (PDF). Reference page.
Nel, A., Azar, D. & Hervet, S. 2010. A new rhopalosomatid wasps in the Paleocene of France (Hymenoptera). Annales de la Société entomologique de France (n.s.) 46: 211–215. [not seen]
Townes, H. 1977. A revision of the Rhopalosomatidae (Hymenoptera). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 15(1): 1–34.

Rhopalosomatidae is a family of Hymenoptera containing about 68 extant species in four genera that are found worldwide.[1] Three fossil genera are known.[2][3]
Rhopalosoma poeyi female

The adults resemble ants and may be confused with them. They are yellowish with red or brown markings, but may be all brown in colour. Winged species are usually nocturnal, while wingless or reduced-wing species are mainly diurnal. They are solitary, and the larvae are ectoparasitic on orthopteran nymphs. Adults have the tips of two or more antennal segments with spines. The hindwing (when present) has distinct claval and jugal lobes. The metatibia has a calcar or curved spur.[4]

Rhopalosoma is a New World genus (17 spp.) with most species from Central and South America. Olixon (26 spp.) is distributed through Africa and Australia and the New World. Paniscomima (11 spp.) is known from India, Madagascar, Africa, and Southeast Asia.[5][6] Most species of Liosphex (14 spp.) are found from the southern US to Central and South America, with one species, L. trichopleurum, known from the Philippines and Indonesia. Mesorhopalosoma cearae is a fossil known from Brazil.[7]

The family has four extant and two extinct genera:[8][9][10]

†Cretolixon Lohrmann et al., 2020 Burmese amber, Myanmar, mid-Cretaceous
†Eorhopalosoma Engel, 2008 Burmese amber, Myanmar, Cenomanian
Liosphex Townes, 1977
Olixon Cameron, 1887
Paniscomima Enderlein, 1904
Rhopalosoma Cresson, 1865

The extinct genera †Mesorhopalosoma Darling, 1990 and †Paleorhopalosoma Nel, Azar & Hervet, 2010 have been moved to the separate family Angarosphecidae.

Lohrmann, L & Ohl, M (2010). "World revision of the wasp genus Liosphex Townes, 1977 (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae)". Zootaxa. 2384 (2384): 1–43. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2384.1.1.
Engel, MS (2008). "The Wasp Family Rhopalosomatidae in Mid-Cretaceous Amber from Myanmar (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea)". Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 81 (3): 168–174. doi:10.2317/JKES-712.11.1.
Brues, CT (1926). "Note on the Hymenopterous Family Rhopalosomatidae". Psyche. 33: 18–19. doi:10.1155/1926/94196.
Goulet, H; Huber, JT, eds. (1993). Hymenoptera of the world: an identification guide to families. Agriculture Canada. p. 205.
Guidotti, A E (1999). Systematics of little known parasitic wasps of the family Rhopalosomatidae (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea) (PDF). Unpublished thesis, University of Toronto.
Guidotti, A E (2007). "A revision of the wasp genus Paniscomima(Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae)and a proposal of phylogenetic relationships among species". Invertebrate Systematics. 21 (4): 297–309. doi:10.1071/is04027.
Darling, DC & Sharkey, MJ (1990). "Insects from the Santana Formation, Lower Cretaceous, of Brazil. Hymenoptera". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 195: 123–153.
Krogmann, Lars; Austin, Andrew D.; Naumann, Ian D. (2009). "Systematics and biogeography of Australian rhopalosomatid wasps (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae) with a global synopsis of the enigmatic genus Olixon Cameron". Systematic Entomology. 34 (2): 222–251. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2008.00460.x.
Lohrmann, V. & A.S. Kroupa (2012). "Genus Olixon". Rhopalosomatidae of the world. Version 1. Published on the Internet. Archived from the original on May 3, 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
Lohrmann, V.; Zhang, Q.; Michalik, P.; Blaschke, J.; Müller, P.; Jeanneau, L.; Perrichot, V. (2020). "†Cretolixon – a remarkable new genus of rhopalosomatid wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Rhopalosomatidae) from chemically tested, mid-Cretaceous Burmese (Kachin) amber supports the monophyly of Rhopalosomatinae". Fossil Record. 23 (2): 215–236. doi:10.5194/fr-23-215-2020.

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