Fine Art

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Scarabaeiformia
Superfamilia: Scarabaeoidea

Familia: Scarabaeidae
Subfamilia: Scarabaeinae
Tribus: Scarabaeini
Genus: Scarabaeus
Subgenera: Pachylosoma – Scarabaeus

Invalid subgenera: Escarabaeus – Kheper – Scarabaeolus – Sceliages

Species (59): S. acuticollis – S. aegyptiacus – S. alienus – S. ambiguus – S. babori – S. basuto – S. bornemizzai – S. caffer – S. cancer – S. carinatus (Gebler) – S. cognatus – S. confusus – S. convexus – S. deludens – S. dioscoridis – S. fraterculus – S. funebris – S. galenus – S. gangeticus – S. geminogalenus – S. goryi – S. heqvisti – S. irakensis – S. isidis – S. jalof – S. janssensi – S. karae – S. karlwerneri – S. krutai – S. licitus – S. nitidicollis – S. piliventris – S. pius – S. planifrons – S. plausibilis – S. poggei – S. proboscideus – S. radama – S. rixosus – S. rugosus – S. rusticus – S. sacer – S. schulzeae – S. sevoistra – S. spretus – S. sulcipennis – S. suri – S. tonckeri – S. transcaspicus – S. typhon – S. vethi – S. viator – S. vicinus – S. viettei – S. westwoodi – S. wilsoni – S. winkleri – S. zagrosensis – S. zambesianus

Scarabaeus Linnaeus, 1758

Type species: Scarabaeus sacer Linnaeus, 1758 by Subsequent designation by Hope, 1837.

Placed on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology by ICZN (2014)
ZooBank: D7804480-1E79-41D5-9373-9B1387EA2E9E




Scarabaeus auratus Linnaeus, 1758 = Cetonia aurata (Linnaeus, 1758)
Scarabaeus quadriguttatus Olivier, 1789 = Canthon quadriguttatus (Olivier, 1789)

Primary references

ICZN 2014: Opinion 2344 (Case 3590): Scarabaeus Linnaeus, 1758, Dynastes MacLeay, 1819, SCARABAEINAE Latreille, 1802 and DYNASTINAE MacLeay, 1819 (Insecta, Coleoptera, SCARABAEOIDEA): usage conserved. Bulletin of zoological nomenclature 71(4): 257–258. Abstract Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i–ii, 1–824 pp DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: 345. Reference page.

Additional references

Davis, A.L.V.; Chown, S.L.; McGeoch, M.A.; Scholtz, C.H. 2000: A comparative analysis of metabolic rate in six Scarabaeus species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from southern Africa: further caveats when inferring adaptation. Journal of insect physiology, 46: 553–562. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-1910(99)00141-9
Deschodt, C.M., Davis, A.L.v. & Scholtz, C.M. 2015. Status changes, new synonymies, key and descriptions of seven new species in the subgenus Scarabaeus (Scarabaeolus) Balthasar 1965 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). Zootaxa 3931(4): 505–527. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3931.4.3 Reference page.
Forgie, S.A.; Philips, T.K.; Scholtz, C.H. 2005: Evolution of the Scarabaeini (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). Systematic entomology 30(1): 60–96. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2004.00273.x Reference page.
Nicolas, J.-L.; Moretto, P. 2002: [Description of two new African Scarabaeidae belonging to the genera Allogymnopleurus Janssens and Scarabaeus Linne.] Entomologia africana, 7(2): 3–10.
Sole, C.L.; Wirta, H.; Forgie, S.A.; Scholtz, C.H. 2011: Origin of Madagascan Scarabaeini dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): dispersal from Africa. Insect systematics & evolution 42(1): 29-40. DOI: 10.1163/187631211X552800 Reference page.
Zídek, J. & Pokorný, S. 2004: Checklist of the genus Scarabaeus Linné. animma.x, (5): 1-30. full issue (PDF) Reference page.
Zídek, J. & Pokorný, S. 2005: Supplemental comments on Scarabaeus Linné. animma.x, (9): 1-12. full issue (PDF) Reference page.
Zídek, J. & Pokorný, S. 2008: Illustrated keys to Palearctic Scarabaeus Linné (Scarabaeidae). animma.x, (27): 1-28. full issue (PDF) Reference page.
Zídek, J. & Pokorný, S. 2011: Replacement name for a subgenus of Scarabaeus Linné, and remarks on Scarabaeus isidis. Klapalekiana 47: 89–90. full article (PDF) Reference page.


Schoolmeesters, P. 2017. Scarabs: World Scarabaeidae Database (version Jul 2016). In: Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., Nieukerken E. van, Zarucchi J., Penev L., eds. 2017. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 30th January 2017. Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858. Reference page. [accessed on April 7, 2017]

Vernacular names
беларуская: Скарабеі

The genus Scarabaeus consists of a number of Old World dung beetle species, including the "sacred scarab beetle", Scarabaeus sacer and typical of the tribe Scarabaeini. These beetles feed exclusively on dung, which they accomplish by rolling a piece of dung some distance from where it was deposited, and burying it in order to feed on it underground. They also prepare food for their larvae by excavating an underground chamber, and filling it with balls that have eggs laid in them. The growing larva feeds upon the dung ball, pupates, and eventually emerges as an adult.[2]

A "scarabaeus" is also a now outdated term (OED 2) for an object in the form of a scarab beetle in art. The scarab was a popular form of amulet in Ancient Egypt,[3] and in ancient Greek art engraved gems were often carved as scarabs on the rest of the stone behind the main flattish face, which was used for sealing documents.[4]

A creature identified as Scarabaeus appears in "The Gold-Bug" by Edgar Allan Poe,[5] and a poem entitled "Scarabæus sisyphus" was created by Mathilde Blind.[6]

Subgenera and species

The following subgenera are accepted in BioLib:

Ateuchetus Bedel, 1892
Escarabaeus Zídek & Pokorny, 2011
Kheper Janssens, 1940
Mnematidium Ritsema, 1888
Pachylosoma Zídek & Pokorný, 2008
Pachysoma MacLeay, 1821
Scarabaeolus Balthasar, 1965
Scarabaeus Linnaeus, 1758
incertae sedis

All species

Scarabaeus acuticollis
Scarabaeus aegyptiacus
Scarabaeus aegyptiorum
Scarabaeus aeratus
Scarabaeus aesculapius
Scarabaeus alienus
Scarabaeus ambiguus
Scarabaeus anderseni
Scarabaeus andreaei
Scarabaeus andrewesi
Scarabaeus armeniacus
Scarabaeus asceticus
Scarabaeus babori
Scarabaeus bannuensis
Scarabaeus basuto
Scarabaeus bennigseni
Scarabaeus bohemani
Scarabaeus bonellii
Scarabaeus bornemizzai
Scarabaeus brahminus
Scarabaeus caffer
Scarabaeus canaliculatus
Scarabaeus cancer
Scarabaeus carinatus
Scarabaeus catenatus
Scarabaeus cicatricosus
Scarabaeus clanceyi
Scarabaeus clericus
Scarabaeus cognatus
Scarabaeus confusus
Scarabaeus convexus
Scarabaeus cristatus
Scarabaeus cupreus
Scarabaeus cuvieri
Scarabaeus damarensis
Scarabaeus deludens
Scarabaeus denticollis
Scarabaeus devotus
Scarabaeus dioscoridis
Scarabaeus ebenus
Scarabaeus endroedyi
Scarabaeus erichsoni
Scarabaeus festivus
Scarabaeus fitzsimonsi
Scarabaeus flavicornis
Scarabaeus fraterculus
Scarabaeus fritschi
Scarabaeus funebris
Scarabaeus furcatus
Scarabaeus galenus
Scarabaeus gangeticus
Scarabaeus gariepinus
Scarabaeus gilleti
Scarabaeus glentoni
Scarabaeus goryi
Scarabaeus gracai
Scarabaeus heqvisti
Scarabaeus hippocrates
Scarabaeus hottentorum
Scarabaeus inoportunus
Scarabaeus inquisitus
Scarabaeus intermedius
Scarabaeus interstitialis
Scarabaeus intricatus
Scarabaeus irakensis
Scarabaeus isidis
Scarabaeus jalof
Scarabaeus janssensi
Scarabaeus karlwerneri
Scarabaeus karrooensis
Scarabaeus knobeli
Scarabaeus kochi
Scarabaeus kwiluensis
Scarabaeus laevifrons
Scarabaeus laevistriatus
Scarabaeus lamarcki
Scarabaeus laticollis
Scarabaeus licitus
Scarabaeus lucidulus
Scarabaeus multidentatus
Scarabaeus namibicus
Scarabaeus natalensis
Scarabaeus nigroaeneus
Scarabaeus nitidicollis
Scarabaeus obsoletepunctatus
Scarabaeus opacipennis
Scarabaeus pabulator
Scarabaeus paganus
Scarabaeus palemo
Scarabaeus parvulus
Scarabaeus piliventris
Scarabaeus pius
Scarabaeus planifrons
Scarabaeus platynotus
Scarabaeus plausibilis
Scarabaeus poggei
Scarabaeus porosus
Scarabaeus proboscideus
Scarabaeus prodigiosus
Scarabaeus puncticollis
Scarabaeus pustulosus
Scarabaeus radama
Scarabaeus ritchiei
Scarabaeus rixosus
Scarabaeus rodriguesi
Scarabaeus rotundigenus
Scarabaeus rubripennis
Scarabaeus rugosus
Scarabaeus rusticus
Scarabaeus sacer
Scarabaeus sanctus
Scarabaeus satyrus
Scarabaeus savignyi
Scarabaeus schinzi
Scarabaeus scholtzi
Scarabaeus schulzeae
Scarabaeus semipunctatus
Scarabaeus sennaariensis
Scarabaeus sevoistra
Scarabaeus silenus
Scarabaeus spretus
Scarabaeus striatus
Scarabaeus subaeneus
Scarabaeus sulcipennis
Scarabaeus suri
Scarabaeus tonckeri
Scarabaeus transcaspicus
Scarabaeus typhon
Scarabaeus valeflorae
Scarabaeus vanderkelleni
Scarabaeus vansoni
Scarabaeus variolosus
Scarabaeus venerabilis
Scarabaeus westwoodi
Scarabaeus vethi
Scarabaeus viator
Scarabaeus vicinus
Scarabaeus viettei
Scarabaeus wilsoni
Scarabaeus winkleri
Scarabaeus xavieri
Scarabaeus zagrosensis
Scarabaeus zambezianus
Scarabaeus zurstrasseni


Fabre, J. Henri. "The Sacred Beetle and Others. Dodd, Mead, New York, 1918".
Pat Remler (2010). "Scarab beetle". Egyptian Mythology A to Z (3rd ed.). Infobase Publishing. pp. 169–171. ISBN 978-1-60413-926-6.
C. Elkins A Greek Scarab with a Centaur in the Getty Museum The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal Volume 13 1985
Classic poets
Catalogue of Life
Fauna europaea Archived 2012-05-30 at the Wayback Machine

Insects, Fine Art Prints

Insects Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World