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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Staphyliniformia
Superfamilia: Staphylinoidea

Familia: Staphylinidae
Subfamilia: Aleocharinae
Tribus (62): ActochariniAenictoteratiniAkatastopsisiniAleocharini – Antillusini – Athetini – Australestesini – Autaliini – Boreocyphini – CordobaniniCorotociniCrematoxeniniCryptonotopsisini – Diestotini – DiglottiniDigramminiDorylogastriniDorylomiminiDrepanoxeniniEcitogastriniEusteniamorphiniFalagriiniFeldini – Geostibini – GymnusiniHimalusiniHomalotiniHoplandriiniHygronominiHypocyphtiniLeucocraspediniLiparocephaliniLomechusiniMasuriiniMesoporiniMimanommatiniMimecitini – Myllaenini – Oxypodini – Oxypodinini – PagliniParadoxenusini – Pediculotini – PhilotermitiniPhyllodinardiniPhytosiniPlacusiniPronomaeiniPseudoperinthiniPygosteniniSahlbergiiniSceptobiiniSkatitoxeniniTachyusini – Taxicerini – TermitodisciniTermitohospitiniTermitonanniniTermitopaediiniTermitusiniTrichopseniiniTrilobitideini

In synonymy: Ecitocharini – Deinopsini
Name

Aleocharinae Fleming, 1821: 49

Type genus: Aleochara Gravenhorst, 1802

Synonymy

Aleocharidae Fleming, 1821: 49 [original name]

References
Primary references

Fleming, J. 1821. Insecta. Supplement to the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica Volume Fifth [Part 1]. 584 pp. A. Constable and Company, Edinburgh, 41–56, pl. 85. Archive Reference page. [see p. 49]

Additional references

Ashe, J.S. 2005: Phylogeny of the tachyporine group subfamilies and 'basal' lineages of the Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) based on larval and adult characteristics. Systematic entomology, 30: 3–37. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2004.00258.x
Elven, H.; Bachmann, L.; Gusarov, V.I. (Early View, 2012): Molecular phylogeny of the Athetini–Lomechusini–Ecitocharini clade of aleocharine rove beetles (Insecta). Zoologica scripta, DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00553.x Open access. Reference page.
Thomas, J.C. 2009: A preliminary molecular investigation of aleocharine phylogeny (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 102: 189–195. DOI: 10.1603/008.102.0201
Webster, R.P., Klimaszewski, J., Bourdon, C., Sweeney, J.D., Hughes, C.C. & Labrecque, M. 2016. Further contributions to the Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) fauna of New Brunswick and Canada including descriptions of 27 new species. ZooKeys 573: 85–216. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.573.7016.Reference page.

Links

Ashe (1947-2005), James S. 2007. Aleocharinae. Version 25 April 2007 in The Tree of Life Web Project
Subfamily of Aleocharinae - atlas of rove beetles (Staphylinidae) of Russia and adjacent countries

Vernacular names
norsk: SmåkortvingerThe Aleocharinae are one of the largest subfamilies of rove beetles, containing over 12,000 species. Previously subject to large-scale debate whether the subfamily deserved the familial status, it is now considered one of the largest subfamilies of rove beetles.[3][4]

Description

The Aleocharinae are generally small to minute beetles, as they can reach a maximum length of about 10 mm (0.4 in), but usually they are 3–5 mm (0.12–0.20 in) long, with a few species of 1 mm (0.04 in), among the smallest of beetles. The body is usually slender, often densely and finely punctured; the head is more or less round and the color may be light or dark brown, reddish-brown, or black, sometimes with contrasting colors of red, yellow, and black.[4]
Anatomy

Because of the size of the subfamily, their anatomy is extremely variable. However, a few key features are shared by all rove beetles. All members have antennae with 10 or 11 segments. The antennal insertion is posterior to a line drawn between the anterior margins of the eyes or anterior to a line drawn between the anterior margins of the eyes. The tarsal segments vary from 2-2-2 to 4-5-5.
Distribution and habitat

Rove beetles belonging to this subfamily are distributed throughout the world in almost all terrestrial habitats. They are commonly predators in soil communities and leaf litter, frequently inquilines in ant and termite nests or associated with mushrooms and fungi.[4]
Ecology

This subfamily is common on all terrestrial habitats. It is collected through several methods, including the use of UV light, emergence chambers, sifting, using Berlese organic material, and pitfall traps.

The biology of the subfamily is complex. Many species are highly specialized, thus are prone to extinction. Free-living, parasitic, herbivorous, carnivorous, fungivorous, flying, walking, running, swimming, social, and solitary forms are known, but their life histories are almost unknown at the species level.
Systematics

This subfamily is one of the largest rove beetle subfamilies, containing 52 tribes, over 1000 genera, and over 12000 described species (about 1385 known from North America). This subfamily is a taxonomically difficult groups of beetles.[4]
Tribes and selected genera

Below is a list of all the tribes and some selected genera.[4][5]

Tribe Actocharini Bernhauer & Schubert, 1911
Tribe Aenictoteratini Kistner, 1993
Tribe Akatastopsisini Pace, 2000
Tribe Aleocharini Fleming, 1821
Aleochara Gravenhorst, 1802
Tinotus Sharp, 1883
Tribe Athetini Casey, 1910
Acrotona Thomson, 1859
Actophylla Bernhauer, 1908
Alevonota Thomson, 1856
Alianta Thomson, 1858
Aloconota Thomson, 1858
Amischa Thomson, 1858
Anopleta Mulsant & Rey, 1874
Atheta Thomson, 1858
Brundinia Tottenham, 1949
Cadaverota Yosii & Sawada, 1976
Callicerus Gravenhorst, 1802
Coprothassa Thomson, 1859
Dacrila Mulsant & Rey, 1874
Dadobia Thomson, 1856
Dilacra Thomson, 1858
Dinaraea Thomson, 1858
Disopora Thomson, 1859
Dochmonota Thomson, 1859
Geostiba Thomson, 1858
Halobrecta Thomson, 1858
Hydrosmecta Thomson, 1858
Leptostiba Pace, 1985
Liogluta Thomson, 1858
Lundbergia Muona, 1975
Lyprocorrhe Thomson, 1859
Nehemitropia Lohse, 1971
Ousipalia Des Gozis, 1886
Pachnida Mulsant & Rey, 1874
Pachyatheta Munster, 1930
Paranopleta Brundin, 1954
Philhygra Mulsant & Rey, 1873
Pycnota Mulsant & Rey, 1874
Schistoglossa Kraatz, 1856
Thamiaraea Thomson, 1858
Tomoglossa Kraatz, 1856
Trichiusa Casey, 1856
Trichomicra Brundin, 1941
Tribe Autaliini Thomson, 1859
Autalia Samouelle, 1819
Tribe Cordobanini Bernhauer, 1910
Tribe Corotocini Fenyes, 1918
Tribe Crematoxenini Mann 1921[6]
Beyeria
Neobeyeria
Tribe Cryptonotopseini Pace, 2003
Tribe Deinopsini Sharp, 1883
Deinopsis Matthews, 1838
Tribe Diestotini Mulsant & Rey, 1871
Tribe Diglottini Jacobson, 1909
Diglotta Champion, 1887
Paradiglotta Ashe & Ahn, 2005
Tribe Diestotini Mulsant & Rey, 1871
Tribe Digrammini Fauvel, 1900
Digrammus Fauvel, 1900
Tribe Dorylogastrini Wasmann 1916
Berghoffia Kistner, 2003
Dorylocratus
Dorylogaster
Tribe Dorylomimini Wasmann 1916
Dorylocratus
Dorylomimus
Dorylonannus
Jeanneliusa
Tribe Drepanoxenini Kistner & Watson, 1972
Tribe Ecitocharini[7]
Ecitodaemon
Ecitomorpha
Ecitophya
Ecitoschneirla
Ecitosymbia (=Ecitoxenides)
Ecitoxenia
Ecitoxenides
Retteneciton
Seeverseciton
Tribe Ecitogastrini
Ecitogaster
Tribe Eusteniamorphini Bernhauer & Scheerpeltz, 1926
Tribe Falagriini Mulsant & Rey, 1873
Anaulacaspis Ganglbauer, 1895
Borboropora Kraatz, 1862
Cordalia Jacobs, 1925
Falagria Samouelle, 1819
Falagrioma Casey, 1906
Flavipennis Cameron, 1920
Myrmecocephalus MacLeay, 1871
Myrmecopora Saulcy, 1865
Tribe Feldini Kistner, 1972
Tribe Gymnusini Heer, 1839
Gymnusa Gravenhorst, 1806
Tribe Himalusini Klimaszewski, Pace & Center, 2010
Tribe Homalotini Heer, 1839
Subtribe Gyrophaenina Kraatz, 1856
Agaricochara Kraatz, 1856
Encephalus Kirby, 1832
Gyrophaena Mannerheim, 1830
Subtribe Bolitocharina Thomson, 1859
Bolitochara Mannerheim, 1830
Euryusa Erichson, 1837
Heterota Mulsant & Rey, 1874
Leptusa Kraatz, 1856
Phymatura J. Sahlberg, 1876
Tachyusida Mulsant & Rey, 1872
Subtribe Silusina Fenyes, 1918
Silusa Erichson, 1837
Subtribe Homalotina Heer, 1839
Anomognathus Solier, 1849
Homalota Mannerheim, 1830
Pseudomicrodota Machulka, 1935
Thecturota Casey, 1893
Subtribe Rhopalocerina Reitter, 1909
Clavigera Scriba, 1859
Cyphea Fauvel, 1863
Tribe Hoplandriini Casey, 1910
Tribe Hygronomini Thomson, 1859
Hygronoma Erichson, 1837
Tribe Hypocyphtini Laporte de Castelnau, 1835 (= Oligotini Thomson, 1859)
Anacyptus Horn, 1877
Cypha Samouelle, 1819
Holobus Solier, 1849
Oligota Mannerheim, 1830
Tribe Lomechusini Fleming, 1821 (= Myrmedoniini Thomson, 1867)
Drusilla Samouelle, 1819
Lomechusa Gravenhorst, 1806
Lomechusoides Tottenham, 1939 (Lomechusoides strumosus)
Maschwitzia
Meronera
Myrmedonota
Zyras Stephens, 1835
Tribe Masuriini Cameron, 1939
Tribe Mesoporini Cameron, 1959
Tribe Mimanommatini Wasmann, 1912
Tribe Mimecitini Wasmann, 1917
Tribe Myllaenini Ganglbauer, 1895
Myllaena Erichson, 1837
Tribe Oxypodini Thomson, 1859
Subtribe Oxypodina Thomson, 1859
Acrostiba Thomson, 1858
Amarochara Thomson, 1858
Calodera Mannerheim, 1830
Cephalocousya Lohse, 1971
Chanoma Blackwelder, 1952
Chilomorpha Krasa, 1914
Crataraea Thomson, 1858
Drusilla Blackwelder, 1952
Dexiogya Thomson, 1858
Haploglossa Kraatz, 1856
Hygropora Kraatz, 1856
Ilyobates Kraatz, 1856
Ischnoglossa Kraatz, 1856
Mniusa Mulsant & Rey, 1875
Ocalea Erichson, 1837
Ocyusa Kraatz, 1856
Oxypoda Mannerheim, 1830
Parocyusa Bernhauer, 1902
Pentanota Bernhauer, 1905
Phloeopora Erichson, 1837
Polylobus
Poromniusa Ganglbauer, 1895
Pyroglossa Bernhauer, 1901
Stichoglossa Fairmaire & Laboulbene, 1856
Thiasophila Kraatz, 1856 (Thiasophila angulata)
Subtribe Dinardina Mulsant & Rey, 1873
Dinarda Samouelle, 1819
Subtribe Meoticina Seevers, 1978
Meotica Mulsant & Rey, 1873
Subtribe Tachyusina Thomson, 1859
Brachyusa Mulsant & Rey, 1874
Dasygnypeta Lohse, 1974
Gnypeta Thomson, 1858
Ischnopoda Stephens, 1835
Tribe Oxypodinini Fenyes, 1921
Tribe Paglini Newton & Thayer, 1992
Tribe Paradoxenusini Bruch, 1937
Tribe Pediculotini Ádám, 1987
Tribe Philotermitini[8]
Philotermes Kraatz, 1857
Pseudophilotermes Bernhauer, 1934
Tribe Phyllodinardini Wasmann, 1916
Tribe Phytosini Thomson, 1867
Arena Fauvel, 1862
Phytosus Curtis, 1838
Tribe Placusini Mulsant & Rey, 1871
Placusa Erichson, 1837
Tribe Pronomaeini Mulsant & Rey, 1873
Tribe Pseudoperinthini Cameron, 1939
Tribe Pygostenini Fauvel, 1899
Tribe Sahlbergiini Kistner, 1993
Tribe Sceptobiini Seevers, 1978[9]
Dinardilla Wasmann, 1901
Sceptobius Sharp, 1883
Tribe Skatitoxenini Kistner & Pasteels, 1969
Tribe Termitodiscini
Termitodiscus
Termitogerrus
Tribe Termitohospitini
Coptotermocola
Neotermitosocius
Termitobra
Termitohospes
Termitosocius
Termitosodalis
Tribe Termitonannini
Tribe Termitopaediini[10]
Coatonipulex Kistner, 1977
Dioxeuta Sharp, 1899
Macrotermophila Kistner, 1973
Macrotoxenus Kistner, 1968
Paratermitopulex Kistner, 1977
Physomilitaris Kistner, 1977
Protermitobia Seevers, 1957
Termitolinus Wasmann, 1911
Termitonda Seevers, 1957
Termitopaedia Wasmann, 1911
Termitotecna Wasmann, 1912
Termitotropha Wasmann, 1899
Termozyras Cameron, 1930
Tribe Termitusini
Termitana
Termitoecia
Termitospectrum
Termitusa
Termitusodes
Tribe Trichopseniini LeConte & Horn 1883
Tribe Trilobitideini
Trilobitideus

Bibliography

Ferro, M. L., M. L. Gimmel, K. E. Harms, and C. E. Carlton. 2012a. Comparison of the Coleoptera communities in leaf litter and rotten wood in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Insecta Mundi 259: 1–58. [1]
Newton, A. F., Jr., M. K. Thayer, J. S. Ashe, and D. S. Chandler. 2001. 22. Staphylinidae Latreille, 1802. p. 272–418. In: R. H. Arnett, Jr., and M. C. Thomas (eds.). American beetles, Volume 1. CRC Press; Boca Raton, Florida. ix + 443 p.
Ashe, J. S. 2005: Phylogeny of the tachyporine group subfamilies and 'basal' lineages of the Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) based on larval and adult characteristics. Systematic entomology, 30: 3–37. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2004.00258.
Thomas, J. C. 2009: A preliminary molecular investigation of aleocharine phylogeny (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 102: 189–195. doi: 10.1603/008.102.0201

References

Yamamoto, Shûhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Parker, Joseph (2016). "Evidence for social parasitism of early insect societies by Cretaceous rove beetles". Nature Communications. 7: 13658. doi:10.1038/ncomms13658. PMC 5155144. PMID 27929066.
Biolib
Newton, A. F., Jr., M. K. Thayer, J. S. Ashe, and D. S. Chandler. 2001. 22. Staphylinidae Latreille, 1802. p. 272–418. In: R. H. Arnett, Jr., and M. C. Thomas (eds.). American beetles, Volume 1. CRC Press; Boca Raton, Florida. ix + 443 p.
James S. Ashe (1947–2005) Tree of life University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA
Family-group Names in Coleoptera (Insecta), p. 18
"Crematoxenini Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
Kistner D. H. 1990. Cladistic analysis and taxonomic revision of the ecitophilous tribe Ecitocharini with studies of their behavior and evolution (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae). Sociobiology (1990). Volume: 17, Issue: 3, Pages: 333—480
"Tree of Life, Philotermitini".
"Sceptobiini Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
Kistner D. H. 1977. Cladistic analysis and taxonomic revision of the termitophilous tribe Termitopaediini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) with remarks on their evolution and the behavior of some species. Sociobiology (1977). Volume: 2, Issue: 4, Pages: 297—304

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