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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Superfamilia: Cossoidea

Subfamiliae: CatoptinaeChilecomadiinaeCossinaeCossulinaeHypoptinaeMehariinaeMetarbelinae – Politzariellinae – Ratardinae – Stygiinae – Zeuzerinae

Genera not assigned to a subfamily

Achthina – Acritocera – Acyttara – Adelopsyche – Allostylus – Anastomophleps – Breyeriana – Callocossus – Charmoses – Chiangmaiana – Coryphodema – Cossodes – Cossulinus – Costria – Dimorphoctena – Dolecta – Dyspessacossus – Eremocossus – Eugivira – Geraldocossus – Givarbela – Gurnetia – Hemilipia – Holcoceroides – Huayna – Inguromorpha – Kerzhnerocossus – Lentagena – Morpheis – Nomima – Phragmatoecioides – Psychidarbela – Psychogena – Ptilomacra – Puseyia – Ravigia – Schausiania – Schreiteria – Schreiteriana – Sinicossus – Synaptophleps – Theatrista – Xyleutites – Zeuzerops – Zyganisus

Cossidae Leach, 1815.

Borth, R.; Ivinskis, P.; Saldaitis, A.; Yakovlev, R. 2011: Cossidae of the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen). ZooKeys, 122: 45–69. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.122.1213
Clench, H.K., 1958: A new Cossid Moth from Western China (Lep. Cossidae). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 48: 82–85. Full article (PDF).
Daniel, F., 1937: Zwei neue Cossidae aus Persien. Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 27: 49–51. Full article (PDF).
Daniel, F., 1940: Die Cossidae und Hepialidae der Ausbeuten Hone. Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 30: 1004–1020. Full article (PDF).
Daniel, F., 1955: Monographie der Cossidae I. (Lep. Het.). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 44-45: 159–181. Full article (PDF).
Daniel, F., 1956: Monographie der palaearktischen Cossidae II. Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 46: 243–288. Full article (PDF).
Daniel, F., 1956: Eine neue afrikanische Cossidae (Lep.). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 46: 289–290. Full article (PDF).
Daniel, F., 1959: Monographie der palaearktischen Cossidae III. Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 49: 102–160. Full article (PDF).
Daniel, F., 1960: Monographie der palaearktischen Cossidae IV - Die Genera Cossulinus Kby., Dyspessacossus Dan. und Isocera Tti. (Lep.). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 50: 93–118. Full article (PDF).
Daniel, F., 1961: Monographie der palaearktischen Cossidae V. - Die Genera Parahypopta g. n., Sinicossus Clench und Catopta Stgr. Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 51: 160–212. Full article (PDF).
Daniel, F., 1971: Österreichische Expeditionen nach Persien und Afghanistan. Beiträge zur Lepidopterenfauna, Teil 16 (3. Beitrag zur Bombyces- und Sphinges-Fauna). Annalen des Naturhistorische Museum in Wien 75: 651–660. Full article (PDF).
van Nieukerken, E.J., Kaila, L., Kitching, I.J., Kristensen, N.P., Lees, D.C., Minet, J., Mitter, C., Mutanen, M., Regier, J.C., Simonsen, T.J., Wahlberg, N., Yen, S-H., Zahiri, R., Adamski, D., Baixeras, J., Bartsch, D., Bengtsson, B.A., Brown, J.W., Bucheli, S.R., Davis, D.R., de Prins, J., de Prins, W., Epstein, M.C., Gentili-Poole, P., Gielis, C., Hättenschwiler, P., Hausmann, A., Holloway, J.D., Kallies, A., Karsholt, O., Kawahara, A.Y., Koster, S., Kozlov, M.V., Lafontaine, J.D., Lamas, G., Landry, J-F., Lee, S., Nuss, M., Park, K-T., Penz, C.M., Rota, J., Schintlmeister, A., Schmidt, B.C., Sohn, J-C., Solis, M.A., Tarmann, G.M., Warren, A.D., Weller, S., Yaklovlev, R.V., Zolotuhin, V.V. & Zwick, A. 2011. Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758. Pp 212–221 In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) 2011. Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 1–237. Open access. Reference page. PDF. Reference page.
Newman, E. 1832. Monographia Aegeriarum Angliae. The Entomological Magazine, 1: 66–84.[1]
Pitkin, B. & P. Jenkins. Butterflies and moths of the World: Generic names and their type-species. Natural History Museum.
Saldaitis, A., Yaklovev, R.V. & Truuverk, A. 2017. Review of the genus Kerzhnerocossus Yakovlev, 2011 (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) with descriptions of two new species from Russia and Mongolia. Zootaxa 4294(3): 389–394. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4294.3.9. Reference page.
Schoorl, J.W. 1990: A phylogenetic study on Cossidae (Lepdoptera: Ditrysia) based on external adult morphology. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 263: 1–295. (PDF)
Yakovlev, R.V. 2004: Cossidae of Thailand. Part 1. (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Atalanta 35 (3-4): 335–351.
Yakovlev, R.V. 2004: New data about Carpenter Moths of China (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Atalanta 35 (3-4): 353–356.
Yakovlev, R.V. 2004: Two new genera of Carpenter Moths from the Palaearctic (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Atalanta 35 (3-4): 357–368.
Yakovlev, R.V. 2004: New taxa of Cossidae from SE Asia (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Atalanta, 35(3-4): 369–382.
Yakovlev, R.V. 2004: Cossidae of Thailand. Part 2. (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Atalanta, 35(3-4): 383–389.
Yakovlev, R.V. 2004: Carpenter-Moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) of Mongolia. Euroasian Entomological Journal, 3(3): 217–224.
Yakovlev, R.V. 2006: New Cossidae (Lepidoptera) from Asia, Africa and Macronesia. Tinea, 19(3): 188–213.
Yakovlev, R.V. 2007: Carpenter moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) of Russia. Eversmannia, 9: 11–33. (PDF)
Yakovlev, R.V., 2009: Catoptinae subfam. n., a new subfamily of carpenter-moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Entomological review, 89(8): 927–932.
Yakovlev, R.V., 2009: New Taxa of African and Asian Cossidae (Lepidoptera). Euroasian Entomological Journal 8 (3): 353–361.
Yakovlev, R.V. 2011: Catalogue of the family Cossidae of the Old World (Lepidoptera). Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 66: 1–129.
Yakovlev, R.V., 2011: Stygiinae Yakovlev, subfam. n., a new Subfamily of Palaearctic Carpenter-moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Entomological Review 91 (4): 508–512.
Yakovlev R.V., 2011: Two new species of the goat moths (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) from New Guinea. Amurian zoological journal III(3): 284–286. Full article.
Yakovlev, R.V., Pljustch, I.G., Skrylnik, Y., Pak, O.V. & Witt, T.J. 2015. The Cossidae (Lepidoptera) of Afghanistan with description of three new species and special notes on the fauna of Bande-Amir National Park. Zootaxa 3990(1): 41–72. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3990.1.3. Preview (PDF) Reference page.
Yakovlev, R.V. & Sáfián, S. 2016. Geraldocossus gen. nov. (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) from Mount Cameroon (West Africa). Zootaxa 4114(5): 595–599. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4114.5.8. Reference page.
Yakovlev, R.V. & T.J. Witt 2009: The carpenter moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) of Vietnam. Entomofauna, supplement 16: 11–32.
Yakovlev, R.V. & Witt, T.J. 2015. Orientozeuzera martinii sp. nov., a new species of Carpenter-Moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) from Borneo. Zootaxa 3990(1): 138–140. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3990.1.8. Preview (PDF) Reference page.
Yakovlev, R.V. 2014: Descriptions of three new species of Cossidae (Lepidoptera) from Vietnam, with an updated annotated checklist. Zootaxa 3802(2): 240–256. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3802.2.6. Paywall. Reference page.
Anikin, V. V.Sachkov, S. A. & Zolotuhin, V. V., 2000. “Fauna lepidopterologica Volgo-Uralensis" 150 years later: changes and additions. Part 2. Bombyces and Sphinges (Insecta, Lepidoptera). Atalanta (Würzburg), 31 (1/2): 265–292. [p.275: Stygiidae Newman, 1832]
d'Almeida, R. F., 1943. Sobre a nomenclatura de alguns grupos superiores da ordem Lepidoptera. la. nota : super-famílias Castnioidea, Hepialoidea, Saturnioidea e Stygioidea. Papéis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoología Secretar. da Agric., São Paulo. 3(17): 237–255.
Koçak, A.Ö. & Kemal, M.,, 2012 List of the hitherto recorded pterygot taxa of Turkey (Insecta) (Temporary report of the Entomofauna Project of Turkey-10). Cent. Ent. Stud., Memoirs 6: i-iv+ 1-1649, 1 fig. [p.4: Stygiinae Newman, 1832 as subfam. of Cossinae Leach, [1815]].
Newman, E., 1832. Monographia Aegeriarum Angliae. The Entomological Magazine, 1: 66–84.
Schoorl jr., J.W., 1990: A Phylogenetic study on Cossidae (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia) based on external adult morphology. Zoologische Verhandelingen 263: 1–295. [p.14: Stygiidae Newman, 1832] Full article.
Walker, 1866. List of the specimens of Lepidopterous Insects in the Colleclion of the British Museum. Part., 35(suppl.- Part.5): 1847 [p.1847: Stygiidae Newman, 1832]
Yakovlev, R.V., 2011. Stygiinae Yakovlev, subfam. n., a new Subfamily of Palaearctic Carpenter-moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Entomological Review 91 (4): 508–512.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Holzbohrer
English: carpenter moths
magyar: farontó lepkék
հայերեն: Այծամեց
Nederlands: houtboorders
Türkçe: Odun güvesigiller
中文: 木蠹蛾科

The Cossidae, the cossid millers or carpenter millers, make up a family of mostly large miller moths. This family contains over 110 genera with almost 700 known species, and many more species await description. Carpenter millers are nocturnal Lepidoptera found worldwide, except the Southeast Asian subfamily Ratardinae, which is mostly active during the day.
Witchetty grubs (Endoxyla leucomochla) of the subfamily Zeuzerinae

This family includes many species with large caterpillars and moths with a wingspan from 9–24 cm (3+1⁄2–9+1⁄2 in). These moths are mostly grey; some have long, narrow wings and resemble hawkmoths (Sphingidae) which are more advanced macrolepidoptera, however. Many are twig, bark, or leaf mimics, and Cossidae often have some sort of large marking at the tip of the forewing uppersides, conspicuous in flight, but resembling a broken-off twig when the animals are resting.

Caterpillars are smooth with a few hairs.[1] Most cossid caterpillars are tree borers, in some species taking up to three years to mature. The caterpillars pupate within their tunnels; they often have an unpleasant smell, hence another colloquial name is goat moths.

The family includes the carpenterworm (Prionoxystus robiniae) and the goat moth (Cossus cossus) which have gained popularity as pests. However, the large caterpillars of species that do not smell badly are often edible. Witchetty grubs – among the Outback's most famous bush tucker – are most commonly the caterpillars of Endoxyla leucomochla, one of the more than 80 cossid species in Australia. In Chile, the sweet-smelling caterpillars of the Chilean moth (Chilecomadia moorei) are harvested in quantity and internationally traded as butterworms, for use as pet food and fishing bait.


Some other animal families, such as the Dudgeoneidae, Metarbelidae, and Ratardidae, have been included within this family time and again. The first is considered a distinct family of the Cossoidea today recognizable by their abdominal tympanal organs which the Cossidae lack, whereas the other two are usually kept in the Cossidae as subfamilies. Some unrelated millers were included in the Cossidae in error, too, such as the genus Holcoceroides which is more primitive Ditrysia, or the Andesianidae which are even more ancient Heteroneura.

The Cossidae were usually divided into six subfamilies.[2] However, numerous new subfamilies have been described recently, the current taxonomy is:
Specimen of the large Zeuzerinae genus Xyleutes

Subfamily Catoptinae
Subfamily Chilecomadiinae
Subfamily Cossinae
Subfamily Cossulinae
Subfamily Hypoptinae
Subfamily Mehariinae
Subfamily Metarbelinae (disputed)
Subfamily Politzariellinae
Subfamily Pseudocossinae
Subfamily Ratardinae (disputed)
Subfamily Stygiinae
Subfamily Zeuzerinae

Zyganisus caliginosus belongs to an Australian genus of unclear affiliations.

Genera Incertae sedis:

Eusthenica (or in Glyphipterigidae)

Excluded genera

Moth genera now included in Dudgeoneidae
Moth genera now included in Psychidae


Hampson, G. F. (1892). The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma: Moths Volume I. Taylor and Francis – via Biodiversity Heritage Library.

Pitkin & Jenkins (2004) and see references in Savela (2006)

Further reading
Pitkin, Brian & Jenkins, Paul. "Search results Family: Cossidae". Butterflies and Moths of the World. Natural History Museum, London. Retrieved February 28, 2009.
Savela, Markku. "Cossidae Leach, 1815". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved November 18, 2018.

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