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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Hymenopterida
Ordo: Hymenoptera
Subordo: Apocrita
Superfamilia: Formicoidea

Familia: Formicidae
Subfamilia: Formicinae
Tribus: Camponotini - Formicini - Gesomyrmecini - Gigantiopini - Lasiini - Melophorini - Myrmecorhynchini - Myrmelachistini - Myrmoteratini - Nostigmatini - Oecophyllini - Plagiolepidini - Incertae Sedis


Formicinae Latreille, 1809

Type genus: Formica Linnaeus, 1758


Agosti, D. 1991: Revision of the Oriental ant genus Cladomyrma, with an outline of the higher classification of the Formicinae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Systematic entomology, 16 (2): 293–310. Internet Archive
Ward, P.S., Blaimer, B.B. & Fisher, B.L. 2016. A revised phylogenetic classification of the ant subfamily Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with resurrection of the genera Colobopsis and Dinomyrmex. Zootaxa 4072(3): 343–357. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4072.3.4. Full article (PDF) Reference page.

Vernacular names
日本語: ヤマアリ亜科
Nederlands: Schubmieren

The Formicinae are a subfamily within the Formicidae containing ants of moderate evolutionary development.

Formicines retain some primitive features, such as the presence of cocoons around pupae, the presence of ocelli in workers, and little tendency toward reduction of palp or antennal segmentation in most species, except subterranean groups. Extreme modification of mandibles is rare, except in the genera Myrmoteras and Polyergus. However, some members show considerable evolutionary advancement in behaviors such as slave-making and symbiosis with root-feeding hemipterans. Finally, all formicines have very reduced stings and enlarged venom reservoirs, with the venom gland, specialized (uniquely among ants) for the production of formic acid.

All members of the Formicinae "have a one-segmented petiole in the form of a vertical scale".[1]


Formicine ants have a single node-like or scale-like petiole (postpetiole entirely lacking) and the apex of the abdomen has a circular or U-shaped opening (the acidopore), usually fringed with hairs. A functional sting is absent, and defense is provided by the ejection of formic acid through the acidopore. If the acidopore is concealed by the pygidium and difficult to discern, then the antennal sockets are located well behind the posterior margin of the clypeus (cf. Dolichoderinae). In most formicines, the eyes are well developed (ocelli may also be present), the antennal insertions are not concealed by the frontal carinae, and the promesonotal suture is present and flexible.[2]
Tribes and genera

The tribal structure of the Formicinae is not completely understood. This list follows the scheme at AntCat,[3] but other schemes and names are used.

Camponotini Forel, 1878
Calomyrmex Emery, 1895
Camponotus Mayr, 1861 – carpenter ants (global)
†Chimaeromyrma Dlussky, 1988
Colobopsis Mayr, 1861[4]
Dinomyrmex Ashmead, 1905
Echinopla Smith, 1857
Opisthopsis Dalla Torre, 1893
Overbeckia Viehmeyer, 1916
Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Asian, African tropics)
†Pseudocamponotus Carpenter, 1930
Formicini Latreille, 1809
Alloformica Dlussky, 1969
Bajcaridris Agosti, 1994
Cataglyphis Foerster, 1850
†Cataglyphoides Dlussky, 2008
†Conoformica Dlussky, 2008
Formica Linnaeus, 1758
Iberoformica Tinaut, 1990
Polyergus Latreille, 1804 – Amazon ants
Proformica Ruzsky, 1902
†Protoformica Dlussky, 1967
Rossomyrmex Arnol'di, 1928
Gesomyrmecini Ashmead, 1905
Gesomyrmex Mayr, 1868
†Prodimorphomyrmex Wheeler, 1915
Santschiella Forel, 1916
†Sicilomyrmex Wheeler, 1915
Gigantiopini Ashmead, 1905
Gigantiops Roger, 1863 (Neotropical)
Lasiini Ashmead, 1905
Acropyga Roger, 1862
Anoplolepis Santschi, 1914
Cladomyrma Wheeler, 1920
†Glaphyromyrmex Wheeler, 1915
Lasiophanes Emery, 1895
Lasius Fabricius, 1804
Myrmecocystus Wesmael, 1838
Prolasius Forel, 1892
Stigmacros Forel, 1905
Teratomyrmex McAreavey, 1957
Melophorini Forel, 1912
Melophorus Lubbock, 1883 (Australian)
Myrmecorhynchini Wheeler, 1917
Myrmecorhynchus André, 1896
Notoncus Emery, 1895
Pseudonotoncus Clark, 1934
Brachymyrmex Mayr, 1868
Myrmelachista Roger, 1863
Myrmoteratini Emery, 1895
Myrmoteras Forel, 1893
Notostigmatini Bolton, 2003
Notostigma Emery, 1920
Oecophyllini Emery, 1895
Oecophylla Smith, 1860 – weaver ants
Plagiolepidini Forel, 1886
Agraulomyrmex Prins, 1983
Aphomomyrmex Emery, 1899
Bregmatomyrma Wheeler, 1929
Euprenolepis Emery, 1906
Lepisiota Santschi, 1926
Nylanderia Emery, 1906
Paraparatrechina Donisthorpe, 1947
Paratrechina Motschoulsky, 1863 – crazy ants
Petalomyrmex Snelling, 1979
Plagiolepis Mayr, 1861
Prenolepis Mayr, 1861
Pseudolasius Emery, 1887
Tapinolepis Emery, 1925
Zatania LaPolla, Kallal & Brady, 2012
incertae sedis
†Attopsis Heer, 1850
†Leucotaphus Donisthorpe, 1920
†Liaoformica Hong, 2002
†Longiformica Hong, 2002
†Magnogasterites Hong, 2002
†Orbicapitia Hong, 2002
†Ovalicapito Hong, 2002
†Ovaligastrula Hong, 2002
†Protrechina Wilson, 1985
†Sinoformica Hong, 2002
†Sinotenuicapito Hong, 2002
†Wilsonia Hong, 2002

Carpenter ant (Camponotus sp.)

Klotz, John H. (2008). "Formicinae". Urban ants of North America and Europe: identification, biology, and management. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-7473-6.
"Subfamily: Formicinae". AntWeb. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
Bolton, B. (2013), "An online catalog of the ants of the world.", AntCat, retrieved 22 September 2013
Ward, Philip S.; Blaimer, Bonnie B.; Fisher, Brian L. (2016). "A revised phylogenetic classification of the ant subfamily Formicinae(Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with resurrection of the genera Colobopsis and Dinomyrmex". Zootaxa. Magnolia Press. 4072 (3): 343–57. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4072.3.4. PMID 27395929.
Christopher M. Wilson; Autumn Smith-Herron (2016). "Morphology of the male genitalia of Brachymyrmex and their implications in the Formicinae phylogeny". Journal of Hymenoptera Research. Pensoft Publishers. 50: 81–95. doi:10.3897/JHR.50.8697. ISSN 1070-9428.
"AntWeb". California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2018-03-10.

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