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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Papilionidae
Subfamilia: Papilioninae
Tribus: Leptocircini
Genus: Graphium
Subgenera: G. (Arisbe) – G. (Graphium) – G. (Paranticopsis) – G. (Pathysa) – G. (Pazala)
Overview species

G. abri – G. adamastor – G. agamedes – G. agamemnon – G. agetes – G. albescens – G. alebion – G. almansor – G. androcles – G. angolanus – G. antheus – G. antiphates – G. aristeus – G. arycles – G. auriger – G. aurivilliusi – G. bathycles – G. batjanensis – G. biokoensis – G. bouyeri – G. browni – G. chironides – G. cloanthus – G. codrus – G. colonna – G. cyrnus – G. decolor – G. delessertii – G. deliae – G. deucalion – G. dorcus – G. doson – G. empedovana – G. encelades – G. endochus – G. epaminondas – G. euphrates – G. euphratoides – G. eurous – G. eurypylus – G. evemon – G. evombar – G. fulleri – G. gelon – G. gudenusi – G. hachei – G. hicetaon – G. idaeoides – G. illyris – G. incertus – G. junodi – G. kigoma – G. kirbyi – G. kosii – G. latreillianus – G. leechi – G. leonidas – G. levassori – G. liponesco – G. macareus – G. macfarlanei – G. macleayanum – G. mandarinus – G. meeki – G. megaera – G. megarus – G. mendana – G. meyeri – G. milon – G. monticolum – G. morania – G. nomius – G. olbrechtsi – G. phidias – G. philonoe – G. poggianus – G. policenes – G. policenoides – G. polistratus – G. porthaon – G. procles – G. ramaceus – G. rhesus – G. ridleyanus – G. rileyi – G. sandawanum – G. sarpedon – G. schaffgotschi – G. schubotzi – G. sichuanica – G. simoni – G. stratiotes – G. stratocles – G. stresemanni – G. taboranus – G. tamerlanus – G. thule – G. timur – G. tynderaeus – G. ucalegon – G. ucalegonides – G. wallacei – G. weiskei – G. xenocles

Graphium Scopoli, 1777: 433.

Type Species: Papilio sarpedon Linnaeus, 1758: 461. Designated by Hemming, 1933: 199; 1967: 202.

Zelima Fabricius, 1807 Mag. f. Insektenk. 6 : 279. TS: Papilio pylades Fabricius.
Idaides Hübner, [1819] Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 85. TS: Papilio codrus Cramer.
Zetides Hübner, [1819] Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 85. TS: Papilio sarpedon Linnaeus.
Arisbe Hübner, [1819] Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 89. TS: Papilio leonidas Fabricius.
Ailus Billberg, 1820 Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb.: 81 (repl. for Zelima Fabricius, 1807)). TS: Papilio pylades Fabricius.
Chlorisses Swainson, 1832 Zool. Illustr. (2) 2 (19): pl. 89. TS: Papilio sarpedon Linnaeus.
Semicaudati Koch, 1860 Stettin ent. Ztg 21 : 231. TS: Papilio sarpedon Linnaeus.
Pathysa Reakirt, [1865] Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 3 : 503. TS: Papilio antiphates Cramer.
Dalchina Moore, [1881] Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 143. TS: Papilio sarpedon Linnaeus.
Paranticopsis Wood-Mason & de Nicéville, [1887] J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 55 Pt.II (4): 376. TS: Papilio macareus Godart.
Pazala Moore, 1888 Descr. Indian lep. Atkinson (3): 283. TS: Papilio glycerion Gray.
Deoris Moore, [1903] Lepidoptera Indica 6 : 31. TS: Papilio agetes Westwood.
Klinzigia Niculescu, 1977, nec Lehrer, 1970.
Klinzigiana Niculescu, 1989 (repl. name).
Eurypyleana Niculescu, 1989. TS: Papilio eurypylus Linnaeus.
Macfarlaneana Niculescu, 1989. TS: Papilio agamemnon Linnaeus.
Munroana Niculescu, 1989.
Wallaceana Niculescu, 1989.


Cipolla, A. 2021. Description d'une nouvelle espèce africaine de Graphium Scopoli, 1777 (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Entomologia Africana 26(1): 49-56. Reference page.
Hanafusa, H. 1993. A list of butterflies from Mentawai Islands, Indonesia (1). Futao 11: 1–13. Reference page.
Hanafusa, H. 1997. A new subspecies of Graphium dorcus (De HAAN) from Butung Is., Indonesia (Lepidoptera : Papilionidae). Futao 26: 1–2. Reference page.
Hanafusa, H. 1998a. A new subspecies of Graphium batjanensis OKANO,1984 from Morotai Is., Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Futao 27: 4–5. Reference page.
Hemming, A. F., 1933. On the Types of certain butterfly genera. Entomologist 66: 196–200. Reference page.
Hemming, A. F., 1967. The generic names of the butterflies and their type species (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 1967, Suppl. 9: 1-509.Reference page.
Hu, S.J., Cotton, A.M., Condamine, F.L., Duan, K., Wang, R.J., Hsu, Y.F., Zhang, X. & Cao, J. 2018. Revision of Pazala Moore, 1888: The Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus (Oberthür, 1879) Group, with Treatments of Known Taxa and Descriptions of New Species and New Subspecies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Zootaxa 4441(3): 401–446. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4441.3.1. Reference page.
Libert, M. 2007. Note on the genus Graphium Scopoli. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Lambillionea 107(1): 19–29. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio Decima, Reformata. Tomus I. Holmiæ (Stockholm): impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. 824 pp. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542 BHL Reference page.
Medicielo, M.M. & H. Hanafusa 1994: Descriptions of five new butterflies from Philippines and Indonesia with some revisional notes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, Satyridae, Riodinidae). Futao 15: 16–19.
Monastyrskii, A.L. 2012. New taxa and new records of butterflies from Vietnam (4) (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). Atalanta 43(1-2): 156–164. full article (pdf). Reference page.
Morita, S., 2004: A new subspecies of Graphium empedovana (Corbet, 1941) from Terengganu Province, Malaysia (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Futao 47: 20.
Morita, S., 2009: Two new subspecies of Graphium ramaceus (Westwood, 1872) from Tioman Isl. and Langkawi Isl., Malaysia (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Futao 55: 10–11.
Müller, C.J. & W.J. Tennent, 1999: A new species of Graphium Scopoli (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. Records of the Australian Museum 51: 161–168. Full article: [1].
Okano, K. 1993: Notes on butterflies (Rhopalocera) from Indonesia, with descriptions of four new subspecies. Tokurana 19(1): 1–7. Reference page.
Scopoli, I.A. 1777. Introductio ad historiam naturalem sistens genera lapidum, plantarum, et animalium hactenus detecta, caracteribus essentialibus donata, in tribus divisa, subinde ad leges naturae. 540 pp. Apud Wolfgangum Gerle, Pragae [Prague]. BHL Reference page.
Yagishita, A. 2007. A new subspecies of Graphium batjanensis Okano, 1984 and a new species of the genus Delias Hübner from Central Halmahera Is., Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae and Pieridae). Futao 53: 10-12. Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: Swordtail butterfly
日本語: アオスジアゲハ属
中文: 青鳳蝶屬

Graphium is a genus of mostly tropical swallowtail butterflies commonly known as swordtails, kite swallowtails, or ladies. Native to Eurasia, Africa, and Oceania, the genus is represented by over 100 species. Their colouration is as variable as the habitats they frequent; from rainforest to savannah. Some possess tails which may be long and swordlike, while others lack any hindwing extensions. Graphium species are often sighted at mud puddles.

The more colourful species are popular with collectors and are commonly seen mounted in frames for sale. Well-known species include the tailed jay (Graphium agamemnon), common bluebottle (G. sarpedon), and the purple-spotted swallowtail (G. weiskei). One species, G. idaeoides, is notable for being a perfect mimic of the danainid Idea leuconoe.

Larvae feed variously on Annonaceae (most commonly), Magnoliaceae (commonly), Lauraceae (commonly), Rutaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Bombacaceae, Piperaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Malpighiaceae, Hernandiaceae, Guttiferae, Monimiaceae, Pandanaceae, Winteraceae, and Euphorbiaceae.

Graphium caterpillar
Graphium agamemnon

Listed alphabetically:[1][2]

subgenus: Idaides

species group: codrus

Graphium anthedon (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1864) – Wallacea bluebottle
Graphium cloanthus (Westwood, 1841) – glassy bluebottle
Graphium codrus (Cramer, [1777]) – eastern olive triangle
Graphium empedocles (Fabricius, 1787), originally Papilio empedocles Fabricius, 1787; Mantissa Insectorum 2: 10, no. 94 = homonym of Papilio empedocles Cramer, 1779; replaced by empedovana Corbet, 1941.
Graphium empedovana (Corbet, 1941)
Graphium gelon (Boisduval, 1859)
Graphium macleayanus (Leach, 1814) – Macleay's swallowtail
Graphium mendana (Godman & Salvin, 1888)
Graphium monticolus (Fruhstorfer, 1896) – Sulawesi blue triangle
?Graphium protensor (Gistel,1857) Papilio protensor Gistel, J.,1857 Achthundert und zwanzig neue oder unbeschriebene wirbellose Theire charakterisirt von Doctor Johannes Gistel Vacuna 2(2):513-606. synonym of Graphium sarpedon
Graphium sarpedon (Linnaeus, 1758) – common bluebottle or blue triangle
Graphium stresemanni (Rothschild, 1916)
Graphium weiskei (Ribbe, 1900) – purple spotted swallowtail

species group: eurypylus

Graphium agamemnon (Linnaeus, 1758) – tailed jay or green-spotted triangle
Graphium arycles (Boisduval, 1836) – spotted jay
Graphium bathycles (Zinken, 1831)
Graphium chironides (Honrath, 1884) – veined jay
Graphium doson (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1864) – common jay
Graphium eurypylus (Linnaeus, 1758) – great jay or pale green triangle
Graphium evemon (Boisduval, 1836) – lesser jay
Graphium leechi (Rothschild, 1895)
Graphium macfarlanei (Butler, 1877) – green triangle butterfly or green triangle
Graphium meeki (Rothschild & Jordan, 1901) – Meek's graphium
Graphium meyeri (Hopffer, 1874)
Graphium procles (Grose-Smith, 1887)

species group: wallacei

Graphium browni (Godman & Salvin, 1879)
Graphium hicetaon (Mathew, 1886)
Graphium sandawanum Yamamoto, 1977 – Apo swallowtail
Graphium wallacei (Hewitson, 1858)

subgenus: Arisbe Hübner, [1819]

species group: antheus

Graphium antheus (Cramer, [1779]) – large striped swordtail
Graphium evombar (Boisduval, 1836)

species group: policenes

Graphium biokoensis Gauthier, 1984 – Gauthier's striped swordtail
Graphium colonna (Ward, 1873) – black swordtail or mamba swordtail
Graphium gudenusi (Rebel, 1911)
Graphium illyris (Hewitson, 1872) - cream-banded swordtail
Graphium junodi (Trimen, 1893) – Junod's swordtail
Graphium kirbyi (Hewitson, 1872) – Kirby's swordtail
Graphium liponesco (Suffert, 1904)
Graphium policenes (Cramer, [1775]) – small striped swordtail or common swordtail
Graphium policenoides (Holland, 1892)
Graphium polistratus (Grose-Smith, 1889) – dancing swordtail
Graphium porthaon (Hewitson, 1865) – coastal swordtail, cream-striped swordtail, or dark swordtail

species group: angolanus

Graphium angolanus (Goeze, 1779) – Angola white lady (swordtail)
Graphium endochus (Boisduval, 1836)
Graphium morania (Angas, 1849) – white lady (swallowtail) or small white-lady swordtail
Graphium ridleyanus (White, 1843) - acraea swordtail
Graphium schaffgotschi (Niepelt, 1927) – Schaffgotsch's swordtail
Graphium taboranus (Oberthür, 1886)

species group: leonidas

Graphium cyrnus (Boisduval, 1836)
Graphium leonidas (Fabricius, 1793) – veined swordtail, veined swallowtail, or common graphium
Graphium levassori Oberthür, 1890

species group: tynderaeus

Graphium tynderaeus (Fabricius, 1793) – electric green swordtail or green-spotted swallowtail
Graphium latreillianus (Godart, 1819) – coppery swordtail

species group: philonoe

Graphium philonoe (Ward, 1873) – eastern white-lady swordtail, eastern graphium, white-dappled swallowtail

species group: adamastor

Graphium abri Smith & Vane-Wright, 2001
Graphium adamastor (Boisduval, 1836) – Boisduval's white-lady
Graphium agamedes (Westwood, 1842) – Westwood's white-lady or glassy graphium
Graphium almansor (Honrath, 1884) – Almansor white-lady swordtail or Honrath's white-lady
Graphium auriger (Butler, 1876)
Graphium aurivilliusi (Seeldrayers, 1896)
Graphium fulleri (Grose-Smith, 1883)
Graphium hachei (Dewitz, 1881)
Graphium kigoma Carcasson, 1964
Graphium olbrechtsi Berger, 1950
Graphium poggianus (Honrath, 1884)
Graphium rileyi Berger, 1950 - Riley's graphium
Graphium schubotzi (Schultze, 1913)
Graphium simoni (Aurivillius, 1899)
Graphium ucalegon (Hewitson, 1865) – creamy graphium
Graphium ucalegonides (Staudinger, 1884)

subgenus: Pathysa

species group: antiphates

Graphium agetes (Westwood, 1841) – fourbar swordtail
Graphium androcles (Boisduval, 1836) – lion swordtail, giant swordtail
Graphium antiphates (Cramer, [1775]) – fivebar swordtail
Graphium aristeus (Stoll, [1780]) – chain swordtail
Graphium decolor (Staudinger, 1888)
Graphium dorcus (de Haan, 1840) – Tabitha's swordtail
Graphium epaminondas (Oberthür, 1879)
Graphium euphrates (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1862) – Euphrates swordtail
Graphium euphratoides (Eimer, 1889)
Graphium nomius (Esper, 1799) – spot swordtail
Graphium rhesus (Boisduval, 1836) – monkey swordtail
Graphium stratiotes (Grose-Smith, 1887)

subgenus: Paranticopsis Wood-Mason & de Nicéville, 1887

Graphium delessertii (Guérin-Méneville, 1839) – Malayan zebra
Graphium deucalion (Boisduval, 1836) – yellow zebra
Graphium encelades (Boisduval, 1836)
Graphium idaeoides (Hewitson, 1853)
Graphium macareus (Godart, 1819) – lesser zebra
Graphium megaera (Staudinger, 1888)
Graphium megarus (Westwood, 1844) – spotted zebra
Graphium ramaceus (Westwood, 1872)
Graphium phidias (Oberthür, 1906)
Graphium stratocles (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861)
Graphium thule (Wallace, 1865)
Graphium xenocles (Doubleday, 1842) – great zebra

subgenus: Pazala Moore, 1888

Graphium alebion (Gray, [1853])
Graphium eurous (Leech, [1893]) – sixbar swordtail
Graphium glycerion (Gray, 1831) – spectacle swordtail
Graphium incerta Bang-Haas, 1927
Graphium mandarinus (Oberthür, 1879) – spectacle swordtail
Graphium mullah (Alphéraky 1897)[3]::* Graphium tamerlana (Oberthür, 1876)
Graphium timur (Ney, 1911)[4] synonymised with Graphium mullah by Cotton and Racheli, T., 2007 [5]
Graphium wenlingae Hu, Condamine, Monastyrskii & Cotton, 2019[6]

See also



Savela, Markku (April 15, 2019). "Graphium Scopoli, 1777". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
Woodhall, Steve (2005). Field Guide to Butterflies of South Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik. ISBN 978-1-86872-724-7.
Global Names Index
Graphium mullah kooichii
Cotton, A.M. & Racheli, T. [2007] Preliminary Annotated Checklist of the Papilionidae of Laos with Notes on Taxonomy, Phenology, Distribution and Variation (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea).Fragmenta Entomologica, Roma, 38(2): 279-378.

"A New Species of the Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus Group (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Central Vietnam". Sarasaviya. Retrieved 11 February 2019.

Smith, Campbell R. and Vane-Wright R.I., 2001 A review of the Afrotropical species of the genus Graphium (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera: Papilionidae) Bulletin of the Natural History Museum Entomology Series Volume 70:503-719 online
Miller, L. D., and Miller, J. Y. (2004). The Butterfly Handbook, pp. 20–25, 52. Barron's Educational Series, Inc.; Hauppauge, New York. ISBN 0-7641-5714-0
Smart, P. (1976). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Butterfly World. ISBN 0-600-31381-6

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