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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Nymphalidae
Subfamilia Limenitidinae
Tribus: AdoliadiniChalinginiLimenitidiniNeptiniParthenini


Limenitidinae Behr, 1864

Wahlberg, N., Weingartner, E. & Nylin, S. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 28(3): 473–484. DOI: 10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00052-6 PDF. Reference page.
Dhungel, B. & Wahlberg, N. 2018. Molecular systematics of the subfamily Limenitidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). PeerJ 6:e4311. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4311 Reference page.

Vernacular names
magyar: Fehérsávos lepkék
日本語: イチモンジチョウ亜科
中文: 線蛺蝶亞科

The Limenitidinae are a subfamily of butterflies that includes the admirals and relatives. The common names of many species and genera reference military ranks or – namely the Adoliadini – titles of nobility (e.g., count, duke, earl, and marquis), in reference to these butterflies' large size, bold patterns, and dashing flight. In particular, the light stripe running lengthwise across the wings of many Limenitidini has reminded earlier authors of officers' (e.g. admiral, commander, commodore) shoulder marks and epaulets.

In flight, many of these butterflies have the habit of flapping their wings, so the (usually) bright upperside and the cryptic underside alternate for the observer, then gliding for prolonged distances, with the motionless wings held outstretched. The common names of some Limenitidinae – "aeroplanes", "clippers", or "gliders" – refer to this flight pattern.

The Biblidinae are sometimes merged here. The present subfamily is also sometimes included as a tribe Limenitidini in the Nymphalinae. But in fact, their closest living relatives seem to be the Heliconiinae.[1]

The Limenitidinae are traditionally divided into four tribes, of which the Parthenini are the most basal lineage and the others form a close-knit and more apomorphic radiation. While this basic layout is likely to be fairly correct, a few genera cannot be easily assigned to the three "modern" tribes and seem to be somewhat intermediate. In particular, the delimitation of the Limenitidini versus the Neptini is in need of more study.[2]
Genera and selected species

The genera of Limenitidinae, sorted per tribe in the presumed phylogenetic sequence and with some species also listed, are:[2]

Tribe Parthenini Reuter, 1896

Bhagadatta Moore, [1898]
Parthenos – clippers

Tribe Adoliadini Doubleday, 1845

Abrota Moore, 1857
Bassarona Moore, [1897] – marquises, dukes
Bassarona durga – blue duke
Bassarona iva – grand duke
Bassarona recta – redtail marquis
Bassarona teuta – banded marquis
Dophla Moore, [1880] – dukes
Dophla evelina – redspot duke
Euthalia – barons, dukes
Euthaliopsis Neervoort van de Poll, 1896
Lexias – archdukes
Neurosigma Butler, 1868
Tanaecia Butler, [1869] – counts
Tanaecia cocytus – lavender count
Tanaecia julii – common earl
Tanaecia lepidea – grey count
Tanaecia pelea – Malay viscount
Aterica Boisduval, 1833 – forest-glade nymphs
Bebearia Hemming, 1960
Catuna Kirby, 1871 – pathfinders
Crenidomimas Karsch, 1894
Cynandra Schatz, [1887] – brilliant nymph
Euphaedra Hübner, [1819] – typical foresters, figeaters
Euptera Staudinger, [1891]
Euriphene Boisduval, 1847
Euryphaedra Staudinger, [1891]
Euryphura Staudinger, [1891]
Euryphurana Hecq, 1992 – noble commander
Hamanumida Hübner, [1819] – guineafowl
Harmilla Aurivillius, 1892 – elegant forester
Pseudargynnis Karsch, 1892 – false fritillary
Pseudathyma Staudinger, [1891] – false sergeants

Tribe Limenitidini Behr, 1864

Adelpha Hübner, [1819] – sisters (sometimes included in Limenitis)
Adelpha basiloides
Adelpha bredowii – Mexico sister
Adelpha californica – California sister (formerly in A. bredowii)
Adelpha eulalia – Arizona sister (formerly in A. bredowii)
Adelpha fessonia – band-celled sister
Auzakia Moore, [1898]
Auzakia danava – commodore
Lelecella Hemming, 1939
Limenitis – admirals
Litinga Moore, [1898]
Parasarpa Moore, [1898]
Parasarpa dudu – white commodore
Parasarpa zayla – bicolor commodore
Patsuia Moore, [1898]
Sumalia Moore, [1898]
Sumalia daraxa – green commodore
Sumalia zulema – scarce white commodore
Moduza Moore, [1881] – commanders (sometimes included in Limenitis)
Moduza procris – commander
Tarattia Moore, [1898]
Athyma – sergeants
Pandita Moore, 1857
Tacola Moore, [1898]

Neptis pryeri pryeri (Neptini)

Tribe Neptini Newman, 1870

Aldania Moore, [1896]
Lasippa Moore, [1898]
Neptis – typical sailers
Pandassana Moore, [1898] (might belong in Neptis)
Pantoporia Hübner, [1819] – lascars
Pantoporia assamica – Assam lascar
Pantoporia bieti – Tytler's lascar
Pantoporia hordonia – common lascar
Pantoporia karwara – Karwar lascar
Pantoporia paraka – Perak lascar
Pantoporia sandaka – extra lascar
Phaedyma Felder, 1861 – aeroplanes
Phaedyma shepherdi – common aeroplane

Pseuodoneptis coenobita is sometimes placed in the Limenitidini. It resembles Neptis species, but probably due to mimicry rather than parallel evolution

Incertae sedis

Cymothoe Hübner, [1819] (Limenitidini or Neptini?) – typical gliders
Cymothoe caenis
Cymothoe hobarti – Hobart's red glider
Cymothoe sangaris
Harma Doubleday, [1848] – angular glider (Limenitidini or Neptini?)
Kumothales Overlaet, 1940 (Limenitidini?)
Lamasia Moore, [1898] (Limenitidini?)
Lebadea Felder, 1861 (Limenitidini or Parthenini?)
Lebadea martha – knight
Pseudacraea – false acraeas (Limenitidini?)
Pseudoneptis Snellen, 1882 – blue sailers (Limenitidini?)
Chalinga Moore, 1898 (=Seokia Sibatani, 1943) (Limenitidini or Chalingini?)


Wahlberg & Brower (2007a,b)

Wahlberg & Brower (2007a), and see references in Savela (2008)


Savela, Markku (2008): Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms – Limenitidinae. Version of 31 August 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
Wahlberg, Niklas & Brower, Andrew V.Z. (2007a): Tree of Life Web Project – Limenitidinae. Version of 15 January 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
Wahlberg, Niklas & Brower, Andrew V.Z. (2007b): Tree of Life Web Project – Nymphalidae. Version of 19 February 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2009.

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