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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Hymenopterida
Ordo: Hymenoptera
Subordo: Symphyta
Superfamilia: Tenthredinoidea

Familia: Tenthredinidae
Subfamiliae (8)Allantinae - Blennocampinae - Dolerinae - Heterarthrinae - Nematinae - Selandriinae - Susaninae - Tenthredininae
Overview of genera

Anhoplocampa – Cladiucha – Croesus – Formosempria – Megabeleses – Setabara – Xenapates – ...


Haris, A. 2006: New sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta, Tenthredinidae) from Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Malaysia and Vietnam, with keys to genera and species. Zoologische Mededelingen, 80: 291–365.
Haris, A. 2007: Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Tenthredinidae) from Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. Zoologische Mededelingen, 81: 149–159.
Haris, A. 2008: Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta, Tenthredinidae) from Vietnam and China. Zoologische Mededelingen, 82: 281–296.
Liston, A., Goergen, G. & Koch, R. 2015. The immature stages and biology of two Xenapates species in West Africa (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 62(1): 9–17. DOI: 10.3897/dez.62.8922 Reference page.
Naumann, I.D.; Williams, M.A.; Schmidt, S. 2002: Synopsis of the Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera) in Australia, including two newly recorded, introduced sawfly species associated with willows (Salix spp.) Australian journal of entomology 41(1): 1–6. DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-6055.2002.00260.x full article (PDF) Reference page.
Naumann, I.D.; Williams, M.A.; Schmidt, S. 2002: Synopsis of the Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera) in Australia, including two newly recorded, introduced sawfly species associated with willows (Salix spp.) Australian journal of entomology, 41: 1–6. DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-6055.2002.00260.x
Schmidt, S.; Smith, D.R. 2009: Selandriinae, a subfamily of Tenthredinidae new to Australia, and a review of other Australian Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Australian journal of entomology, 48: 305–309. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-6055.2009.00710.x
Smith, D.R. 2017. Redescription of Cladiucha insolita Konow (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), description of the male and intraspecific variation. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 60: 173–179. DOI: 10.3897/jhr.60.21099 Reference page.
Wei, M.-C., 1997: New Genera and New Species of Sawflies From Southwestern China (Hymenoptera:Tenthredinidae). Zoological Research 18 (2): 129–138. Abstract and full article: [1].
Wei, M.; Niu, G. 2009: Review of some Southeast Asian sawfly species (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) described by Attila Haris. Zootaxa, 2279: 60–68. Abstract & excerpt

Vernacular names
suomi: Lehtipistiäiset
日本語: ハバチ科
српски / srpski: Лисна оса

Tenthredinidae is the largest family of sawflies, with well over 7,500 species worldwide,[2] divided into 430 genera. Larvae are herbivores and typically feed on the foliage of trees and shrubs, with occasional exceptions that are leaf miners, stem borers, or gall makers. The larvae of externally feeding species resemble small caterpillars. As with all hymenopterans, common sawflies undergo complete metamorphosis.

The family has no easily seen diagnostic features, though the combination of five to nine antennal flagellomeres plus a clear separation of the first abdominal tergum from the metapleuron can reliably separate them. These sawflies are often black or brown, and 3 to 20 mm long. Like other sawflies, they lack the slender "wasp-waist", or petiole, between the thorax and abdomen, characteristic of many hymenopterans. The mesosoma and the metasoma are instead broadly joined. The Tenthredinidae are also often somewhat dorsoventrally flattened, which will distinguish them at least from the slender cephids (which, together with the common sawflies, comprise many of the Nearctic species of Symphyta).

Females use their saw-like ovipositors to cut slits through barks of twigs, into which translucent eggs are wedged, which damages the trees. They are common in meadows, and in forest glades near rapid streams. Adults eat little, while larvae feed on foliage of streamside trees and shrubs, especially willow.

A number of species and genera have been described from the fossil record such as Eriocampa tulameenensis and Pseudosiobla campbelli of British Columbia.[3]


The Tenthredinidae are divided into seven subfamilies. Of the 430 genera, nine contain more than 50 species.
Subfamilies and genera

Subfamilies and genera within this family include:[4]

Subfamily Allantinae
Allantus Panzer, 1801
Ametastegia A. Costa, 1882
Apethymus Benson, 1939
Athalia Leach, 1817
Empria |Lepeletier, 1828
Eriocampa Hartig, 1837
Monosoma MacGillivray, 1908
Monostegia O. Costa, 1859
Taxonus Hartig, 1837
Subfamily Blennocampinae
Ardis Konow, 1886
Blennocampa Hartig, 1837
Cladardis Benson, 1952
Claremontia Rohwer, 1909
Eutomostethus Enslin, 1914
Halidamia Benson, 1939
Hoplocampoides Enslin, 1913
Monardis Benson, 1952
Monophadnoides Ashmead, 1898
Monophadnus Hartig, 1837
Paracharactus MacGillivray, 1908
Periclista Konow, 1886
Phymatocera Dahlbom, 1835
Rhadinoceraea Konow, 1886
Stethomostus Benson, 1939
Tomostethus Konow, 1886
Subfamily Heterarthrinae
Caliroa O. Costa, 1859
Endelomyia Ashmead, 1898
Fenella Westwood, 1840
Fenusa Leach, 11817
Heterarthrus Stephens, 1835
Messa Leach, 1817
Metallus Forbes, 1885
Parna Benson, 1936
Profenusa MacGillivray, 1914
Rocalia Takeuchi, 1952
Scolioneura Konow, 1890
Subfamily Nematinae
Amauronematus Konow, 1890
Anoplonyx Marlatt, 1896
Cladius Illiger, 1807
Croesus Leach, 1817
Decanematus Malaise, 1931
Dineura Dahlbom, 1835
Eitelius Kontuniemi, 1966
Endophytus Hering, 1934
Eupontania Zinovjev, 1985
Euura Newman, 1837
Hemichroa Stephens, 1835
Hoplocampa Hartig, 1837
Mesoneura Hartig, 1837
Micronematus Konow, 1890
Nematinus Rohwer, 1911
Nematus Panzer, 1801
Pachynematus Konow, 1890
Pikonema Ross, 1937
Platycampus Schiødte, 1839
Pontania Costa, 1859
Pontopristia Malaise, 1921
Priophorus Dahlbom, 1835
Pristiphora Latreille, 1810
Pseudodineura Konow, 1885
Sharliphora Wong, 1969
Stauronematus Benson, 1953
Trichiocampus Hartig, 1837
Subfamily Selandriinae
Aneugmenus Hartig, 1837
Birka Malaise, 1944
Brachythops Haliday, 1839
Dolerus Jurine, 1807
Hemitaxonus Ashmead, 1898
Heptamelus Haliday, 1855
Loderus Konow, 1890
Nesoselandria Rohwer, 1910
Pseudoheptamelus Conde, 1932
Selandria Leach, 1817
Strombocerina Malaise, 1942
Strongylogaster Dahlbom, 1835
Subfamily Susaninae
Susana Rohwer & Middleton, 1932
Subfamily Tenthredininae
Aglaostigma Kirby, 1882
Eurogaster Zirngiebl, 1953
Ischyroceraea Kiaer, 1898
Macrophya Dahlbom, 1835
Pachyprotasis Hartig, 1837
Perineura Hartig, 1837
Rhogogaster Konow, 1884
Siobla Cameron, 1877
Tenthredo Linnaeus, 1758
Tenthredopsis A. Costa, 1859
Tyloceridius Malaise, 1945
Ussurinus Malaise, 1931


Of these subfamilies, Tenthredininae and Allantinae are sister groups, and together form a sister group to the Nematinae.[5]

Liston et al 2014.
Davis, Robert B; Baldauf, Sandra L; Mayhew, Peter J (2010). "The origins of species richness in the Hymenoptera: insights from a family-level supertree". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 10 (1): 109. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-109. ISSN 1471-2148. PMC 2873417. PMID 20423463.
Rice, H.M.A. (1968). "Two Tertiary sawflies, (Hymenoptera – Tenthredinidae), from British Columbia". Geological Survey of Canada. 67 (59): 1–21.

Song et al 2016.


Asaro, Christopher (2008-08-11). Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). pp. 3250–3252. ISBN 9781402062421., in Capinera (2008)
Boevé, Jean-Luc (2008-08-11). Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). pp. 3252–3257. ISBN 9781402062421., in Capinera (2008)
Capinera, John L., ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of Entomology (2nd ed.). Dordrecht: Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-6242-1.
Blank, S.M.; Groll, E.K.; Liston, A.D.; Prous, M.; Taeger, A. (2012). "ECatSym - Electronic World Catalog of Symphyta (Insecta, Hymenoptera). Program version 4.0 beta, data version 39". Müncheberg: Digital Entomological Information.
Blank, S.M.; Taeger, A. (1998). Comments on the taxonomy of Symphyta (Hymenoptera). pp. 141–174., in Taeger, A. & Blank, S. M. (eds.), Pflanzenwespen Deutschlands (Hymenoptera, Symphyta) Kommentierte Bestandsaufname. Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Goecke& Evers, Keltern.
Goulet, Henri; Huber, John T., eds. (1993). Hymenoptera of the world: An identification guide to families (PDF). Ottawa: Agriculture Canada. ISBN 978-0-660-14933-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-05.
Liston, Andrew; Knight, Guy; Sheppard, David; Broad, Gavin; Livermore, Laurence (29 August 2014). "Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Sawflies, 'Symphyta'". Biodiversity Data Journal. 2 (2): e1168. doi:10.3897/BDJ.2.e1168. PMC 4152835. PMID 25197241.
Smith, David R (September 1969). Nearctic sawflies I. Blennocampinae: Adults and larvae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) (Technical Bulletin 1397). Washington: US Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
Smith, David R (September 1969). Nearctic sawflies II.Selandriinae: Adults and larvae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) (Technical Bulletin 1398). Washington: US Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
Smith, David R (January 1971). Nearctic sawflies III. Heterarthrinae: Adults and larvae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) (Technical Bulletin 1420). Washington: US Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
Smith, David R (June 1979). Nearctic sawflies IV. Allantinae: Adults and larvae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) (Technical Bulletin 1595). Washington: US Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
Smith, David R (March 2003). "A Synopsis of the Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) of America South of the United States: Tenthredinidae (Nematinae, Heterarthrinae, Tenthredininae)". Transactions of the American Entomological Society. 129 (1): 1–45. JSTOR 25078795.
Song, Sheng-Nan; Tang, Pu; Wei, Shu-Jun; Chen, Xue-Xin (16 February 2016). "Comparative and phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in basal hymenopterans". Scientific Reports. 6: 20972. doi:10.1038/srep20972. PMC 4754708. PMID 26879745.
Skvarla, Michael; Smith, David; Fisher, Danielle; Dowling, Ashley (9 May 2016). "Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. II. Sawflies (Insecta: Hymenoptera: " Symphyta ")". Biodiversity Data Journal. 4 (4): e8830. doi:10.3897/BDJ.4.e8830. PMC 4867044. PMID 27222635.

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