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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Superclassis: Allotriocarida
Classis: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Pyraloidea

Familia: Pyralidae
Subfamilia: Galleriinae
Tribus: Cacotherapiini - Galleriini - Joelminetiini - Megarthridiini - Tirathabini
Overview of genera not assigned to a tribus

Gallerites – Macrotheca – Marisba – Rhectophlebia – Yxygodes

Galleriinae Zeller, 1848

Type genus: Galleria Fabricius, 1798

Macrotheciinae Barnes & McDunnough, 1912


Beccaloni, G.W., Scoble, M.J., Robinson, G.S. & Pitkin, B. (Editors). 2003. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex).[1] (accessed 03/06/2006)
Regier, J.C. et al., 2012: A molecular phylogeny for the pyraloid moths (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea) and its implications for higher-level classification. Systematic Entomology 37 (4): 635–656. Abstract: DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2012.00641.x.


Global information system on pyraloidea [2].

The Galleriinae are a subfamily of snout moths (family Pyralidae) and occur essentially worldwide, in some cases aided by involuntary introduction by humans. This subfamily includes the wax moths, whose caterpillars (waxworms) are bred on a commercial scale as food for pets and as fishing bait; in the wild, these and other species of Galleriinae may also be harmful to humans as pests.

At the species level, they are the least diverse snout moth subfamily according to current knowledge, with 306 described species all together. However, as regards major lineages, the Galleriinae are quite diverse, with five tribes being recognized – more than in the Phycitinae, the most species-rich snout moth subfamily. One of these tribes, the Joelminetiini, has been described only in 2007, and presently contains a single and highly aberrant genus.
Description and ecology
Head of adult female rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica) showing its "snout"
scale bar: 0.5 mm

The caterpillar larvae of Galleriinae usually have a sclerotised (hardened) ring around the base of seta SD1 on the first abdominal segment. Their pupae are comparatively easy to distinguish from other snout moths' by a readily apparent midline ridge running along the thorax and abdomen. In the imagines, the gnathos of the male genitalia is reduced to the point of disappearing altogether or (more rarely) with only the barest vestige remaining; this is quite characteristic except for a few Chrysauginae which have convergently lost the gnathos. Males produce very high chirping sounds with their tegulae, in some cases even regular "mating songs", though without specialized bioacoustics equipment this cannot be used for identification. Unusual for Pyralidae, adult Galleriinae may lack ocelli and even the proboscis (which is usually well developed in the family); as typical for the family, however, they usually have large labial palps which form a "snout".[1]

Ecologically, the subfamily is noted for a number of species that coevolved with Hymenoptera, namely Apoidea (bees and relatives). The larvae may be parasites or symbionts, and the adults of such species at least to some degree are inquilines (though usually pursued by the nest inhabitants). Especially notable among these Galleriinae are the waxworms (Achroia and Galleria larvae) which are both significant as beekeeping pests and as commercial items, as well as Aphomia species. Others, especially the rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica) and Paralipsa, are noted pests of stored food products.[2]

The diversity of Galleriinae known in the mid-20th century was fully catalogued by P.E.S. Whalley of the UK Natural History Museum, but no dedicated phylogenetic analysis has been conducted. Notwithstanding, such studies exist for the Pyraloidea as a whole, and these indicate that the Galleriinae are a rather primitive lineage of Pyralidae, comparable to the Chrysauginae. The latter may be the closest living relatives of the Galleriinae, or an independent but equally ancient snout moth lineage that simply looks similar due to sharing many plesiomorphic traits.[2]

The Galleriinae are currently divided into five tribes, though this may change eventually. For one thing, some genera are presently insufficiently studied or too aberrant to be firmly assignable to any one tribe; for another, in the absence of detailed phylogenetic studies the best systematic treatment for members of this subfamily remains a best guess. Furthermore, not all Galleriinae are known to science; new species and genera continue to be discovered. A supposed additional tribe ("Macrothecini") is based on a misidentified specimen of Cacotherapia interalbicalis; on the other hand the genus Joelminetia, of which the first specimens reached the hands of researchers only in the 1990s, turned out to be so distinct as to warrant establishment of its own monotypic tribe.[3]
Adult bee moth (Aphomia sociella) of the Tirathabini

The tribes and genera – with some significant species also noted – in this subfamily are:[4]

Cacotherapiini Munroe, 1995 (= Macrothecini)

Alpheias Ragonot, 1891
Alpheioides Barnes & McDunnough, 1912
Cacotherapia Dyar, 1904
Decaturia Barnes & McDunnough, 1912
Genopaschia Dyar, 1914

Galleriini Zeller, 1848

Cathayia Hampson in Ragonot, 1901
Chevalierella Ghesquière, 1943
Eloeidiphilos Praviel, 1938
Galleria – greater wax moth, honeycomb moth
Trachylepidia Ragonot, 1887

Joelminetiini Speidel & Witt, 2007

Joelminetia Speidel & Witt, 2007

Megarthridiini Whalley, 1964

Cataprosopus Butler, 1881
Eulophopalpia Inoue, 1982
Megarthridia Martin, 1956
Omphalocera Lederer, 1863
Omphalocera munroei – asimina webworm
Perinetoides Marion, 1955
Sphinctocera Warren, 1897
Thyridopyralis Dyar, 1901

Tirathabini Whalley, 1964

Antiptilotis Meyrick, 1897
Bapara Walker, 1865
Callionyma Meyrick, 1882
Callionyma sarcodes
Ceratothalama Meyrick, 1932
Corcyra – rice moth
Cristia Whalley, 1964
Doloessa Zeller, 1848
Epimorius Zeller, 1877
Ertzica Walker, 1866
Ethopia Walker, 1865
Galleristhenia Hampson, 1917
Heteromicta Meyrick, 1886
Heteromicta pachytera
Hypolophota Turner, 1904
Mampava Ragonot, 1888
Mecistophylla Turner, 1937
Metaraphia Hampson in Ragonot, 1901
Meyriccia Hampson, 1917
Microchlora Hampson in Ragonot, 1901
Neoepimorius Whalley, 1964
Neophrida Möschler, 1882
Paralipsa Butler, 1879
Paralipsa gularis – stored nut moth
Paraphomia Hampson in Ragonot, 1901
Parazanclodes Hampson in Ragonot, 1901
Paroxyptera Ragonot, 1901
Picrogama Meyrick, 1897
Pocopaschia Dyar, 1914
Pogrima Schaus, 1940
Prasinoxena Meyrick, 1894
Proropoca Hampson, 1916
Prosthenia Hampson in Ragonot, 1901
Schistotheca Ragonot, 1882
Statia Ragonot, 1901
Stenachroia Hampson, 1898
Stenopaschia Hampson, 1906
Thalamorrhyncha Meyrick, 1933
Tirathaba Walker, 1864
Xenophasma Dognin, 1905

incertae sedis

Gallerites Kernbach, 1967
Marisba Walker, 1863
Rhectophlebia Ragonot, 1888
Yxygodes Viette, 1989


Jia et al. (2001), Solis (2007), Zhou et al. (2008)
Solis (2007)
Pitkin & Jenkins (2004), Solis (2007), and see references in Savela (2011)

See references in Savela (2011)

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Galleriinae.

Jia, Feng-You; Greenfield, Michael D. & Collins, Robert D. (2001): Ultrasonic Signal Competition Between Male Wax Moths. Journal of Insect Behavior 14(1): 19–33. doi:10.1023/A:1007893411662 PDF fulltext
Pitkin, Brian & Jenkins, Paul (2004): Butterflies and Moths of the World, Generic Names and their Type-species – Macrotheca. Version of November 5, 2004. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
Savela, Markku (2011): Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms: Galleriinae. Version of March 8, 2011. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
Solis, M. Alma (2007): Phylogenetic studies and modern classification of the Pyraloidea (Lepidoptera). Revista Colombiana de Entomología 33(1): 1–8 [English with Spanish abstract]. HTML fulltext
Zhou, Yihong; Kuster, Heidi K.; Pettis, Jeffrey S.; Danka, Robert G.; Gleason, Jennifer M. & Greenfield, Michael D. (2008): Reaction Norm Variants for Male Calling Song in Natural Populations of Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): towards a Resolution of the Lek Paradox. Evolution 62(6): 1317–1334. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00371.x PDF fulltext[permanent dead link] Supporting Information

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